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Content Nuke: Keemstar’s Journalistic Ethics
submitted by Feigenbass to h3h3productions [link] [comments]
A little back ground about me. I am a professional classical musician, two masters degrees (classical performance and music education). I also have appeared in several music videos and projects over the years. I try to keep a very low profile when it comes to social media and I try not to post opinions.
Long time fan of H3H3 and I’ve been watching since the Eggie video. My s/o and I bonded over the Ethan and Hila videos (and often rewatch them for a laugh).
I wanted to start by saying that the Content Nuke video was so extremely well done and accurate. I’m interested to see if Keemstar responds in the coming days. There was something that really stuck out to me. Having never watched Keemstar I didn’t know he considered his show news and himself a journalist. After spending time watching the full videos of the clips, I see that Ethan’s analysis was totally spot on.
Most of Keemstar’s “reporting” is highly unethical. Now when I say unethical I don’t just mean wrong, I mean he is literally breaking the five core values of ethical journalism. The Ethical Journalism Network
outlines exactly what these values are. So I’m going to quote them and expand on why I think he broke this value.
- Truth and Accuracy “Journalists cannot always guarantee ‘truth’, but getting the facts right is the cardinal principle of journalism. We should always strive for accuracy, give all the relevant facts we have and ensure that they have been checked. When we cannot corroborate information we should say so.” (EJN)
As outlined in the video by Ethan, Keem on numerous occasions has had highly inaccurate information. The accuracy of what is being reported on is not very good, and the way the information is obtained (in the case of Ethan’s experience) is through DM’s, people make things up on social media all the time. Not only that but you should always verify your source, whether it’s an article or a person, and see if you can get hard evidence. In the case of the Payday 2 skins Keem quoted an oped instead of talking to the source like Ethan did.
- Independence “Journalists must be independent voices; we should not act, formally or informally, on behalf of special interests whether political, corporate or cultural. We should declare to our editors – or the audience – any of our political affiliations, financial arrangements or other personal information that might constitute a conflict of interest.” (EJN)
While Keem does announce his corporate sponsorships, I don’t think he acts as a conduit for them news wise. I do think Keem does break this value as well. He clearly has personal conflicts of interests, yet still reports as though they’re fact. Many of his stories are personal and motivated by his own agenda rather than actually reporting news. I believe he sees H3 more as a threat to his viewership, and by attacking them he does so purely for people to watch his content rather than actually report. This is but a small example, and I’m sure more can be found.
- Fairness and Impartiality “Most stories have at least two sides. While there is no obligation to present every side in every piece, stories should be balanced and add context. Objectivity is not always possible, and may not always be desirable (in the face for example of brutality or inhumanity), but impartial reporting builds trust and confidence.”(EJN)
Keem is the opposite of fair and impartial. In regards to fairness, when Etica is explaining his side/feelings about Keem, Keem takes the time to speak over him instead of allowing him the opportunity to speak fairly. There are many times Keem only comes from one side and never considers an impartial stance. His reporting can’t really be trusted. In the video Ethan exposes some questionable investments with the CSGo scam. What other investments has Keem made? Really makes you wonder...
- Humanity “Journalists should do no harm. What we publish or broadcast may be hurtful, but we should be aware of the impact of our words and images on the lives of others.”(EJN)
Keems words and actions have clearly caused emotional and physical harm. Doxing is harmful. His words like the racist remarks or his stance on mental health is harmful. From a journalistic perspective Keem lacks humanity. I don’t know him as a person, but his tweets and tactless posts are really sad. There is often a lot of aggression behind his words, and talking with someone may help him. Suicide is not a joke nor is it something to be exploited.
- Accountability “A sure sign of professionalism and responsible journalism is the ability to hold ourselves accountable. When we commit errors we must correct them and our expressions of regret must be sincere not cynical. We listen to the concerns of our audience. We may not change what readers write or say but we will always provide remedies when we are unfair.”(EJN)
Keems apologies and accountability is something Ethan addressed in his video. Keem apologizes and says all the right things, but there never really is a change. When you apologize you generally learn from your mistakes and try to improve. Now we have seen real accountability before here. The last SomeOrdinaryGamer apology to Ethan was an incredible piece of journalistic accountability and something that Keem could really learn from. The author clearly recanted all that he had said, apologized for his actions and admitted he was wrong sincerely. The opposite of what Keemstar does, and something he should watch to learn from. Taking accountability is hard, whether it’s accountability for your words, your health (mental and physical), or actions. Those who take control by recognizing an issue or who are accountable are incredibly strong. If anything the fact that Keem can’t take accountability is proof that HE is weak.
Keems News isn’t really news at all. What he is reporting on, are mostly opinions and he often spends his time bullying people. His stance on mental health is harmful, specially to the young and impressionable minds he is molding. His career as a journalist would involve many years of scrubbing and correcting his content and I doubt any of that will change. I also don’t think he has a future in music either.
I expect the response Keemstar will make to Ethans video will be of the same quality as most of his content. Expect the response to be mostly opinion based, and highly personal. It would be a true shock to see Keemstar actually apologize for what he did wrong, simply based on his Twitter.
I think Ethan really proved his point. If Keemstar is really news, and he’s really a journalist, he should act like one instead of pretending to be one.
Apologize for the formatting I’m on mobile.
What's your opinion of the following statement: "Independent agencies of the US federal government have a net positive influence on the United States"
submitted by read-it-on-reddit to neoliberal [link] [comments]
From the wikipedia article
Independent agencies of the United States federal government are agencies that exist outside the federal executive departments (those headed by a Cabinet secretary) and the Executive Office of the President. In a narrower sense, the term may also be used to describe agencies that, while constitutionally managed by the executive branch, are independent of presidential control, usually because the president's power to dismiss the agency head or a member is limited.
Examples of agencies:
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) gathers foreign intelligence and provides national security assessments to policymakers in the United States. It acts as the primary human intelligence provider for the federal government.
The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) regulates commodity futures and option markets in the United States. The agency protects market participants against manipulation, abusive trade practices, and fraud. Through oversight and regulation, the CFTC enables the markets to serve better their important functions in the US economy, providing a mechanism for price discovery and a means of offsetting price risk.
The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) is responsible for consumer protection in the financial sector. Its jurisdiction includes banks, credit unions, securities firms, payday lenders, mortgage-servicing operations, foreclosure relief services, debt collectors, other financial companies in the United States.
The Election Assistance Commission (EAC) was formed in 2002 to serve as a national clearinghouse and resource of information regarding election administration. It is charged with administering payments to states and developing guidance to meet the Help America Vote Act (HAVA) requirements, adopting voluntary voting system guidelines, and accrediting voting system test laboratories and certifying voting equipment. It is also charged with developing and maintaining a national mail voter registration form.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) works for state and local governments throughout the United States to control and abate environmental pollution and to address problems related to solid waste, pesticides, radiation, and toxic substances. The EPA sets and enforces standards for air, soil and water quality, evaluates the impact of pesticides and chemical substances, and manages the Superfund program for cleaning toxic waste sites.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is charged with regulating interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable. It licenses radio and television broadcast stations, assigns radio frequencies, and enforces regulations designed to ensure that cable rates are reasonable. The FCC regulates common carriers, such as telephone and telegraph companies, as well as wireless telecommunications service providers.
The Federal Election Commission (FEC) oversees campaign financing for all federal elections. The Commission oversees election rules as well as reporting of campaign contributions by the candidates.
The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is the United States federal agency with jurisdiction over interstate electricity sales, wholesale electric rates, hydroelectric licensing, natural gas pricing, and oil pipeline rates. FERC also reviews and authorizes liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals, interstate natural gas pipelines, and non-federal hydropower projects.
The Federal Maritime Commission (FMC) regulates the international ocean transportation of the United States. It is charged with ensuring a competitive and efficient ocean transportation system.
The Federal Reserve Board of Governors is the governing body of the Federal Reserve System (often called "the Fed"), the central bank of the United States. It conducts the nation's monetary policy by influencing the volume of credit and money in circulation. The Federal Reserve regulates private banking institutions, works to contain systemic risk in financial markets, and provides certain financial services to the federal government, the public, and financial institutions.
The Federal Retirement Thrift Investment Board (FRTIB) is one of the smaller Executive Branch agencies, with just over 100 employees. It was established to administer the Thrift Savings Plan (TSP), which provides federal employees the opportunity to save for additional retirement security. The Thrift Savings Plan is a tax-deferred defined contribution plan similar to a private sector 401(k) plan.
The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) enforces federal antitrust and consumer protection laws by investigating complaints against individual companies initiated by consumers, businesses, congressional inquiries, or reports in the media. The commission seeks to ensure that the nation's markets function competitively by eliminating unfair or deceptive practices.
The General Services Administration (GSA) is responsible for the purchase, supply, operation, and maintenance of federal property, buildings, and equipment, and for the sale of surplus items. GSA also manages the federal motor vehicle fleet and oversees telecommuting centers and civilian child care centers.
The International Trade Commission (ITC) provides trade expertise to both the legislative and executive branches of the federal government, determines the impact of imports on US industries, and directs actions against certain unfair trade practices, such as patent, trademark, and copyright infringement.
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) preserves the nation's history by overseeing the management of all federal records. The holdings of the National Archives include original textual materials, motion picture films, sound and video recordings, maps, still pictures, and computer data. The Declaration of Independence, the US Constitution, and the Bill of Rights are preserved and displayed at the National Archives building in Washington, D.C.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the federal government's space agency. It is responsible for the civilian space program as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) administers the principal United States labor law, the National Labor Relations Act. The board is vested with the power to prevent or remedy unfair labor practices and to safeguard employees' rights to organize and determine through elections whether to have a union as their bargaining representative.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.
The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is responsible for civil transportation accident investigation in the US. The NTSB investigates and reports on aviation accidents and incidents, certain types of highway crashes, ship and marine accidents, pipeline incidents, and railroad accidents.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was established by the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 from the United States Atomic Energy Commission, and opened January 19, 1975. The NRC oversees reactor safety and security, reactor licensing and renewal, radioactive material safety, and spent fuel management (storage, security, recycling, and disposal).
The Postal Regulatory Commission (PRC) was created in 1971 as the Postal Rate Commission and strengthened under the Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act enacted in December 2006. Provides regulatory oversight over the activities of the United States Postal Service.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) was established to protect investors who buy stocks and bonds. Federal laws require companies that plan to raise money by selling their own securities to file reports about their operations with the SEC, so that investors have access to all material information. The commission has powers to prevent or punish fraud in the sale of securities and is authorized to regulate stock exchanges.
The Selective Service System (SSS) is an independent federal agency operating with permanent authorization under the Military Selective Service Act. It is not part of the Department of Defense; however, it exists to serve the emergency manpower needs of the military by conscripting untrained men, or personnel with professional health care skills, if directed by Congress and the President. Its statutory missions also include being ready to administer an alternative service program, in lieu of military service for men classified as conscientious objectors.
The Small Business Administration (SBA) was created in 1953 to advise, assist, and protect the interests of small business concerns. The SBA guarantees loans to small businesses, aids victims of floods and other natural disasters, promotes the growth of minority-owned firms, and helps secure contracts for small businesses to supply goods and services to the federal government.
The Smithsonian Institution (SI) is an independent establishment of the United States created by an act of Congress August 10, 1846. The SI conducts scientific and scholarly research; publishes the results of studies, explorations, and investigations; organizes exhibits representative of the arts, the sciences, American history, and world culture; and engages in educational programming and national and international cooperative research. Most of the National Museums in Washington, D.C., are part of the Smithsonian.
The Social Security Administration (SSA) is the United States federal agency that administers Social Security, a social insurance program consisting of retirement, disability, and survivors' benefits. To qualify for these benefits, most American workers pay Social Security taxes on their earnings; future benefits are based on employee contributions.
The Surface Transportation Board (STB) was created in the ICC Termination Act of 1995 and is the successor agency to the Interstate Commerce Commission. The STB is an economic regulatory agency that Congress charged with resolving railroad rate and service disputes and reviewing proposed railroad mergers. The STB is decisionally independent, although it is administratively affiliated with the Department of Transportation.
The United States Postal Service (USPS) is defined by statute as an "independent establishment" of the federal government, which replaced the Cabinet-level Post Office Department in 1971. The Postal Service is responsible for the collection, transportation, and delivery of the mails, and for the operation of thousands of local post offices across the country. It also provides international mail service through the Universal Postal Union and other agreements with foreign countries.
Breadispain's NHL DFS Primer 2019-20
submitted by breadispain to dfsports [link] [comments]
The first (preseason) DFS content is available tomorrow on Draftkings! It's time to get back into the swing of things. Introduction
Many people commented or PMed me last season saying that my posts helped them win more money, more frequently. I know I personally missed out on some big paydays by ignoring my own advice. (Sigh.) I’ve been playing DFS hockey since 2014 and have become gradually more invested in it over the past few seasons. I started playing $1 single entry tournaments and I’ve been hooked since my first entry placed 47/3448. You’ll generally find me in single entry tournaments on Draftkings and whichever site has the better tournament payout on the larger Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday slates.
I have the same username on Draftkings
if you’re looking for me elsewhere. Disclaimer
I would recommend that you only play DFS as a form of entertainment. Hockey is a volatile sport where anything can happen any given night: the underdog could win, your starting goaltender could be injured, etc. While under no circumstances should you hold me liable should you lose, please take me into consideration if you do happen to come upon a big payday as a result of my advice ;)
I’d advise restraint during the preseason and month of October while lines and systems are settling and the sample size is small. The whole point of using data to build your lineups is to reduce randomness, so your bankroll should be saved for when the league is more predictable. However, if you’re a degenerate like me, you likely have enough data about your personal habits to know that is unlikely. Slates
The NHL schedule dictates larger slates on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, with fewer games on days between. Larger slates tend to come with higher prize pools funded by more entries. Since a larger slate means more players are on the ice, that generally decreases specific player ownership. Though that increases your chance of your players having lower ownership if they go off, it also makes it more difficult to pick players that score more than the rest of the field, since there’s a higher probability more goals are scored. (And that’s what makes it fun!)
While there are also all day, afternoon, evening and late night slates, as well as Showdown and whatever else have been introduced lately, the payout for these contests tends to be less overall for the same entry fees, while the difficulty of winning them is comparable, so I tend to avoid them with few exceptions. Contest Type
Whether you’re playing cash games (50/50, multipliers, head-to-head), satellites, or GPP (Guaranteed Prize Pool) tournaments will greatly affect your strategy. In GPP’s you’re looking for highest upside
to get the most overall points possible to win the tournament. In cash, you’re looking for the highest floor
to ensure you’re above the fold. In general, play cash games for security and GPP’s for the thrill.
I’m sure there are a lot of pros that play cash games regularly because you can easily double your wager any given night, which at minimum helps pad your bankroll to cover any GPP losses. I personally don’t like the upside when weighing risk/reward and therefore prefer to play GPP’s almost exclusively. However, cash strategies can also translate to smaller tournaments because you don’t need as much variance to set yourself apart from other lineups. Single-Entry vs Multi-Entry
Daily fantasy hockey is always pitching itself as a game of skill while trying to distance itself from gambling for legal reasons. I contend that single entry tournaments are the truest test of skill here because each entry holds the same weight. These are my preferred contests by far, though there are rarely more than two any given night with a payout worth the ticket price.
While you technically have a better chance of placing first by maxing your entries in GPP’s every night, it’s impractical for most players, especially the novice. You can see in the Draftkings Results Database
that even seasoned veterans rarely employ this strategy as well. For what it’s worth, some of my biggest paydays have also been ones where I made the fewest amount of entries. Your mileage may vary. Rake
Rake is simply the house cut taken by whichever site you’re gambling on. Along with entry fees it has increased in recent years and stabilized around 9-13% depending on the contest. If all things are considered equal, target contests with a lower rake, as more prizes are being paid out to the contestants. That also means GPP’s and satellites that are not filling up before the deadline can offer you a slight advantage. Bankroll Management You
should care about how much money you’re gambling because no one else is going to. Bankroll management doesn’t factor much into my decision making simply due to the scale I operate at, so I’ll only offer this advice: winnings are not winnings until you withdraw them, and only if you haven’t deposited more than that originally. It boggles my mind when people praise themselves for winning a grand after dumping two the month before. Set an amount you’re comfortable losing and don’t deposit more than that when it’s gone. There are free bankroll trackers available online if you want an overview of how you’re doing, such as Daily Fantasy Nerd
, as well as restrictions on each site if needed. Point Systems
This whole post was based around the 2018-19 point system for both Fanduel and Draftkings. However, it was Recently Announced
that adjustments would be made to the Draftkings point system this coming season. Here’s what you need to know:
Prior to this year, there used to be relative parity between the Fanduel and Draftkings scoring systems. Aside a few discrepancies, like Fanduel awarding minor powerplay point bonuses, Draftkings accounting for goaltender points and hat trick bonuses, and a slight variation between block and shot values, Fanduel scores were basically 4x Draftking ones and the only significant differences were salary discrepancies and lineup construction.
No longer. Not only have the Draftkings points been bumped up overall but their relative values have changed. A goaltender win is now worth less relative to a goal. While it used to take 15 saves to make up a goal, it will now take about 12. There will also be two points awarded for overtime losses.
There are other minor changes to the basic scoring system, like assists and shots on goal are worth slightly less relative to a goal, but the real change will be in the new bonus system. Here you will see an additional three points awarded for hat tricks, 35+ saves, 5+ shots, 3+ blocks and 3+ point games. That 3 point modifier also stacks with the hat trick bonus, which is, frankly, ridiculous. This will significantly change the worth of playmakers, with two assists (10 points) now being worth less than a player with five shots on goal (10.5 points) without hitting twine.
Draftkings claims this makes the game “more exciting” but right now it just seems like it’ll be more random. I fail to see how anyone that regularly plays DFS with any volume benefits from this change, outside of possibly drawing in more inexperienced entries and increasing the overall player and prize pool. The NHL players gaining these bonuses are, for the most part, already the top performers in those categories. Additional incentives are hardly necessary to have Burns or Ovechkin any given night. For others, certain punt plays could see a significant boost, though it makes little sense to me why two blocked shots would be worth 2.6 points but a third bumps that up to 6.9.
Regardless, I still see linestacking being advantageous with these changes. Linestacking
Outside of choosing a winning goaltender, using players on the same line is the most basic DFS advice you can give a beginner. Since there are so few goals scored in a hockey game and most of those goals correlate with an assist, you typically want to pick players with good linemates. The odds of stacking two corresponding lines and getting multi-point games that win you money is far greater than selecting six players who have standout individual performances on any given night.
Depending on whether you play on Fanduel or Draftkings will determine what kind of strategies are available to you, as there are tighter salary constraints on Draftkings but looser restrictions. For example, on Fanduel you’re capped at 4 players from each team. On Draftkings, you only need 3 different teams represented, so you can technically play the entire top six from one team instead. Despite that, you cannot do the 4-4-1 stack available on Fanduel, where you pick two lines with their corresponding defensemen and a goaltender. Instead, you have to opt for a 4-3-1 stack, either using the utility position for a punt play (typically not ideal) or alternating one of the defensemen from a different team (preferable).
I don’t like to break up line stacks because I’ve been playing long enough to see it come back to haunt me, but there’s always an argument for dropping an underperforming third wheel or due to salary constraints. Powerplay Correlation
Roughly 20% of NHL goals are scored with the man advantage. Though not strictly necessary, players who have top powerplay minutes are more likely to score goals. If an entire line has full powerplay correlation, even better. There are few teams worth targeting for a powerplay stack where the players are not also linemates. However, last season the Lightning, Panthers, Sharks, Pens, Flames, Leafs and Caps all had great powerplay success with players combined from two or more lines. This can make a decent contrarian play against a weak penalty kill team or simply to deviate from the standard chalk on a smaller slate. Percentage of Ownership
Generally speaking, whichever team(s) has the highest Vegas odds to win, and especially a high oveunder, will also be the favored teams, or chalk
, for DFS. Since only 20% of GPP entries will profit and the chalk lines are likely to garner 20%+ ownership, if that line goes off it could break the slate
(you’ll need that line to win).
Just because a team is a favorite to win does not mean they’re your safest option. Primarily because there are
no safe options, it’s also crucial to maximize your success by differentiating your lineups from others. Use Vegas odds and “expert” predictions as a guideline for what you think other
people will be targeting, and keep this in mind when building your own lineups. Looking for the lines that could produce but be underlooked (and therefore under-owned) is necessary for a big payday.
The larger the slate, the more likely you can profit from chalk. Likewise, the smaller the slate, the higher upside for contrarian options. On a 12 game slate there are likely to be several favorites, decreasing the overall ownership percentage of any given line. On a three or four game slate, more people are likely to gravitate to one or two lines. Whether you can actually afford
to stack these lines together is another matter entirely. Sometimes the chalk lines are so prohibitively expensive that you have to make great sacrifices elsewhere in your lineup. Salary Constraints
I don’t fully understand how either Fanduel and Draftkings come up with their player salaries because they often feel arbitrary. Kase was priced at floor on Fanduel for weeks, despite putting up solid production on the first line for the Ducks. There were thousands of dollars difference in Chabot’s salary when he was on a tear as well. Some players, like Shattenkirk, appeared to have inflated salaries solely due to name recognition. Occasionally there are straight up errors, like Keith Yandle was priced at floor by mistake for almost a week on Draftkings last January. Suffice to say that it’s worth analyzing the value of each player on a line when stacking, as well as exploring individual salary trends, as players are often propped up by things that don’t translate to DFS production.
It’s rare that you’ll pick two lines that fit so comfortably you can afford top defensemen and a goaltender as well. If you have the salary left over to flesh out your lineup with Burns, Letang and Vasilevskiy, it’s hard to make an argument not to. More likely you’re going to be looking for pivots, a line that has a value player that brings down the total cost, or ultimately sacrificing somewhere in your lineup.
A solid pivot for me was likely an outlier getting top powerplay time (ex. Pirri), an individual performer on a depth line (Ex. Donato; Perreault), an unrecognized rookie (ex. Svechnikov, Chabot), someone stepping in for an injury in a lineup, or a cheap defenseman with offensive upside (ex. Ekholm).
It’s also not uncommon for a star to have less talented linemates. Sometimes that artificially inflates the cost of those linemates, but sometimes it makes the line a decent budget option. You’ll likely find these players alongside McDavid, Matthews, Crosby or Stamkos, for example, when their lines are not loaded with their corresponding Kucherovs or Draisaitls.
Some lines are so prohibitively expensive they’re virtually unstackable at all, though these lines are also typically matchup proof. Because of the sacrifice required, these lines are often worth targeting on a larger slate or against tougher opposition where they’ll fetch lower ownership but still have the potential for a hat trick or more. Refer to COL1, BOS1, TBL2, etc. Contrarian Play
Contrarian here simply means rejecting the consensus favorite, but it’s often confused with simply picking a line from a bad team to go against the grain. Note there’s rarely a good argument to pick a contrarian goaltender, outside of high upside for their salary. Keep in mind that Vegas odds, really even the best teams in the NHL, are roughly 60-65% likely to accurate project as a winner, and that winning alone is not always enough to make a goaltender valuable because they might not see a lot of shots.
So when should
you play contrarian? One of my favorite contrarian options on Fanduel specifically is when a line’s players have the “wrong” position. This happens when a player was previously playing out of position, and Fanduel is notorious for being slow to respond to these changes. Since it’s more difficult to stack a CCW or WWW line, these picks are naturally contrarian because they’re harder to fit into a lineup.
Another option might be targeting secondary scoring on depth lines. Not only is this an option for affordability that’s easier to stack, but it’s a decent pivot off the chalk for a team that’s a favorite to win. It’s worth noting that a team playing on home ice has the advantage of last change and therefore can choose their deployment. If you’re targeting against a team with a solid shutdown line on home ice, a secondary scoring line might end up getting better deployment and production. Likewise, if you know a line will be forced to play a shutdown role, you might want to consider alternatives. This is called line matching
and may differ on a nightly basis.
One option that’s often overlooked is a game stack. That is, picking one line from either teams in one game. When two teams are porous defensively or have a historic rivalry, chances are if a goal is scored early in the first period the ice could rapidly open up and the game will become a shooting gallery.
Finally, though this option is restricted only to Draftkings, you can stack two lines from the same team with each other. This could be the entire top six or a full five man powerplay stack. I would reserve this option only for high powered offenses against the weakest of opposition though. Defensemen
I often consider defensemen an extension of linestacking, but in reality that’s not always feasible. Though there are technically points awarded for blocked shots, even the top shot blockers aren’t very DFS relevant on shot blocking alone, unless they are positioned against a high shot volume team and come at a reasonable price tag. It is worth considering a high floor from reliable shooters and/or blockers when looking for value if you’re stacking two expensive lines, especially in cash games. While it’s not uncommon to see rosters where people have two depth defenders squeezed into their lineup due to salary constraints, know that you’ll typically need at least another goal from your forwards to compensate for the backend unless they happen to get a lucky bounce.
There are only around forty defensemen capable of regularly generating at a half point per game every season. With so few of these players available any given night, their salaries are typically higher than a forward with a similar point pace. The most prolific point producers are often unattainable for this reason. If an inexpensive defenseman finds his way onto the first powerplay unit, you can guarantee he will see high ownership. It’s almost always recommended to upgrade your defensemen if your salary allows. Goaltenders
More important than any other statistic is whether or not your goalie is starting, so make sure to confirm that before puck drop. Daily Faceoff
is the defacto place to verify the starting goaltender for each team. It’s not infallible, but it’s the best resource available without refreshing Twitter constantly for updates.
While it’s rare this will haunt you, it’s important to note that the win is only attributed to the goalie that’s on the ice when the deciding goal is scored, and that’s not necessarily who’s in the net at the end of the game. This is especially pertinent if you’re considering playing preseason games, where there’s often split duty between two prospects.
Even the worst goaltender is going to take up a sizeable chunk of your salary cap. However, unless they’re pulled from the game, even a losing goalie at least generally has some
positive impact on your overall score. On the flipside, a winning goaltender can easily be your MVP every night. That’s a lot of pressure on picking the right player in this position, and therefore it’s often the hardest.
Without consideration for quality of opponent, even the best goaltender on the first seeded team has generally won less than 70% of their games that season. Picking a winning team is already a gamble, let alone the challenge of picking a winner that also faces a lot of shots without giving up goals. Because of this, I don’t really have a strong inclination to any particular strategy here. Some nights I’ll single out a small handful of goalies I think will perform well and either correlate them with my stacks or disperse them based on their salaries. If I’m only targeting a few lines that night, maybe I’ll run the same stacks with several goaltenders and hope to see them all dispersed in the top fifty. Other times I’ll ride the same goaltender for every lineup in a boom or bust scenario. In any case, I would seriously caution against being contrarian here without knowing there’s high upside (the goaltender is cheapest on the slate and at least has a chance of winning, say). Recent/Historical Performance
I’m not going to lie, I use DailyFantasyNerd
to compare shooting and scoring trends amongst players, and I’m always dialled in to the hot hands as much as anyone. However, I feel like people might put too much weight on recent performance and too little on historical data and sustainability.
There’s no question that sometimes players just go on hot or cold streaks, and betting on a player who’s in a slump to miraculously break it that night is equal parts realistic and gambler’s fallacy, as much as banking on the hot hand continuing his run would be. If you’re willing to do further digging, it’s worth taking into account whether a player is seeing a change in deployment or ice time. Consider whether they’re shooting more or less and what percentage of those shots are converting. Also note the quality of competition in the previous games. If you’re not doing any additional research whatsoever, just know these stats are usually shown as an average over the last five games and can be heavily skewed by one good or bad game, or even an injury.
If I only have time for minimal research any given night, without fail I am checking ShrpSports
and CBC Sports
for the team matchup history. Providing other factors align, I will often trust historical data and narrative games over a lot of other metrics. Now, I’m often criticised for putting weight on either of these things whatsoever
, but I’ll still argue that it’s foolish to ignore it.
Obviously rosters change from season to season, and sometimes very dramatically. You should definitely take offseason changes into account. However, there are some teams or specific players that consistently (and often unexpectedly) have another team’s number, and rivalries are sure to bring out the best of both teams despite what fancy stats and standings indicate. Because of this, I tend to look at the outcome of the previous two season’s play and include any games played this season, with a greater weight put on teams that matchup more frequently. Especially if there is a team that shouldn’t be victorious that’s been on a relatively consistent win streak versus their opponent, I’m making a note of the upside from their upset potential, both to avoid picking the opposing goaltender and to consider linestacks that might otherwise be overlooked. I generally ignore playoff performances though because the stakes are higher and roles tend to be different.
It also might seem silly to place any weight on things like personal milestones, birthdays or playing against your former team, but hockey players are human, and more often than not people step up to prove something to themselves or others, or help their teammates achieve personal goals. Advanced Stats
I’ll consider advanced stats for our purposes as anything that isn’t already tracked for DFS points that might actually affect them. So, standard stats would be shots, goals, assists and blocks, and advanced stats would be metrics that affect that. Not all good hockey players are fantasy relevant, and therefore many advanced stats aren’t a good predictor of DFS production. I will say that advanced stats strongly suggested that Tampa Bay were not nearly as good as their record suggested headed into the playoffs. Either way, it’s worth understanding these terms as they’re becoming part of the narrative, and while player and puck tracking will soon be the norm, you can garner a slight edge over the competition with a bit of manual work if you’re so inclined. In any case, none of these stats should be considered in a vacuum, and hockey isn’t a science in that you’ll accurately predict an outcome via advanced stats alone, so don’t go crazy looking for a pattern that probably isn’t there.
You can find all these stats (and much
more) listed below at Corsica Hockey
and Natural Stat Trick
. Shooting Percentage
Shooting percentage is predictive of whether on a player’s ice performance is sustainable. It’s most useful as a comparison to league and individual averages weighed against current performance to determine whether it’s an outlier. Simply, whether a player is slumping or over-performing. Scoring Chances
These are shots taken where goals are likely to be scored, weighed based on where on the ice they’re taken from. It’s fallible, but it’s one of the strongest predictors currently available. If a player has a high shooting percentage but is also taking high danger shots, it stands to reason why they’re converting into goals. It’s worth noting when a line is generating high danger scoring opportunities without producing, as they’ll likely fly under the radar in the meantime. Expected Goals FoAgainst (xGF/xGA)
Expected goals is a measurement of unblocked shots that register on net in the offensive zone. xGF/xGA doesn’t have a strong correlation with actual goals scored, which seems easily explained because it doesn’t take into account individual talent or scoring probability. While there’s a chance any puck thrown toward the net could lead to a goal, without taking into account the shot quality or where it’s generated from, I don’t place much weight on this personally. Expected Save Percentage (xSv%)
This stat takes into account shot quality (though not shooter quality) and quantity and ranks the goaltender against the league average performance. Again, this isn’t necessarily a fair indicator of how well the goaltender performed. It is worth considering for how well the team’s defense has played in front of him though, so it can be used in conjunction with other stats when picking a goalie for the win and save upside. Corsi and Fenwick
Corsi is likely the most recognizable name in advanced stats. This was devised to account for goaltender workload and adjusts for every time they have to be in position to make a save, so it takes into account shot attempts that are blocked or go wide of the net. It’s sister stat, Fenwick, is identical, aside excluding blocked shots. >50% Corsi/Fenwick indicates more shots on net than against. Neither take into account shot quality. Therefore, rather than using positive metrics to determine whether a team will score, I consider this a determining factor for diminishing the opposition from scoring, as they’ll possess the puck less often. This is especially worth considering for linematching.
Note that Corsi/Fenwick will be influenced by zone starts. A player that gets more faceoffs in the offensive zone is more likely to put pucks on net than they are to have shots against theirs, and vice versa. A player that has negative percentage and
>50% offensive zone starts represents poor ice performance. PDO/SPSV%
This statistic is nothing more than shooting percentage added to the save percentage. Since this will always total 100% league-wide, variance higher than 100 supposedly indicates luck, or that a team is not as good as they seem, and anything lower indicates they may be better than they appear. Though this stat supposedly measures luck it can also indicate a significant skill gap (Kucherov and Matthews are dominant in this category). A line generating many high danger scoring chances without conversion should have a low PDO that regresses to the mean.
There are more advanced stats available than these, as well as derivatives of each, though I think this is enough of an overview for daily fantasy purposes. If there’s something you’ve found to be useful though, feel free to drop it in the comments. Lineup Construction
Now that you have narrowed down your chosen lines based on which teams you want to target and have a handful of goaltenders and defensemen/utility players selected, you’re ready to construct your lineups.
This will likely be a very individual process based on system comfortability and how many entries you’re submitting. The default will be simply to load the corresponding app or website and do everything entirely on your device or browser, if not supplementing with pen and paper. Perfectly acceptable. However, this would be both cumbersome and time consuming for MME, so there’s also a bulk upload option available with .csv spreadsheets. This might be the approach you take if you’re using an optimizer too. Optimizers
Free optimizers are basically designed to squeeze out every dollar per average point production or projection, which is very much not what I prefer to build my lineups on. Though there are better options if you’re willing to shell out some money, I don’t play enough volume to warrant a subscription and prefer a more hands-on approach anyway. I would highly recommend checking out Linestar
though. I am not affiliated with them in any way, but they seem under-recognized in the market and are easily the best optimizer available for hockey in my opinion, utilizing a lot of the criteria I’ve mentioned here, including historical data, stacking and advanced stats, etc. which many other optimizers omit. There’s also an option for a brief trial based on ad views. Line Stacker
I personally use a custom line stacker that I hobbled together with spreadsheets and the downloadable .csv files from Draftkings and Fanduel. You can access it here
along with the basic instructions for how it works. Someone always comes along and messes it up somehow, so I would recommend downloading it to your desktop and using Excel to play around with it. Late Night Swaps
Rosters lock when the first game of the night is slated to begin. If there are games on your slate starting later than that, keep in mind that changes can and do happen. Check for last minute line changes or which goaltender takes the ice even if things seemed certain at the morning skate. The worst thing that can happen is watching your first place entry plummet because it was a late reveal that someone has the flu and isn’t on the bench. Additional Resources Breadispain’s FREE Fanduel and Draftkings Line Stacker v1.1
: My own hobbled together line-stacking tool for up to 24 lines. I don't know of a similar tool available right now and I find it handier than an optimizer. There’s also a rudimentary salary comparison tool between Draftkings and Fanduel implemented if that interests you. ShrpSports
: See how well teams have performed against each other historically. CBC Sports
: maybe it’s because I’m Canadian, but I think the CBC does the best overview of the slate with easy access to the latest game data. Daily Faceoff
: Your best source for lineups, injury news and starting goaltender information. Daily Fantasy Nerd
: I use this daily for an overview of who’s hot/cold in the last five games for shots on goal, ice time and points, though it’s worth making a deeper dive to see whether those points came from a single outlier game. Corsica Hockey
and Natural Stat Trick
: I use both of these sites for advanced stats, and occasionally the latter for line-matching data and post-game analysis. Linestar
: Linestar comes closest to developing a DFS tool that actually correlates with how I build my lineups. They offer everything from analysis on value plays, recent performance in varying metrics, historical data vs opponent, change in salary, salary disparity between platforms, and much more. Results DB
: see the best and optimal lineups from previous nights and who came out ahead. Awesemo
and DFS Army
: Since these are the more popular sites, I tend to review their postings and livestreams when time permits on the big slates for anything I might’ve overlooked and to get a better idea of where other people might be targeting. I personally place more weight on boggslite
, for whatever that’s worth to you. Summary
It’s my opinion that Vegas odds and expert predictions should be used as a guide for chalk more than what you should target. It won’t take research to determine that good players with ideal linemates against weak opponents are more likely to score. Don’t ignore narrative games and historical performances. Advanced stats can be both helpful and distracting. Ideally you’ll always stack two or more players who are correlated on the powerplay with one or both of your defensemen, on teams with high GF/G and/or PP%, against teams with low CF% and/or a goaltender with high GAA, ideally with a low PK%. Consider whether these players have been under or overperforming and have any chemistry together. Players who shoot more often increase their point floor and probability to score. It’s advantageous to be on home ice for linematching but it’s rarely a dealbreaker. Round this out with a goaltender with a high expected SA/G and low GAA that fits within your salary constraints. Alternatively, build from the goaltender out or just hamfist whomever works.
And that’s always easier said than done.
Best of luck.
First Kickstarter (Advice Requested)
submitted by SMBSkin to kickstarter [link] [comments]
! I'm looking for some general Kickstarter campaign advice.
We're planning to launch a campaign Q1 2020 in the skin care niche. In reviewing old beauty startup campaigns (that I could find) I've noticed that most tend to fare pretty poorly. From what I can see, Kickstarter campaigns that do well organically (i.e. driven by the Kickstarter community) are often tech-driven or tabletop games, which suggests that we can't depend much on the platform for organic traffic help. Our funding goal is $40,000, which is fairly high historically for the skin care niche on Kickstarter, but we're trying to do something quite innovative, so that may help our effort.
My questions to any who can offer some advice:
- Is mid to late January a good time to launch a campaign? From what I've read, campaigns ending Dec/Jan perform poorly. Any experience on those ending in Feb/March?
- We're thinking that the campaign should cross two monthly paydays (Feb 1st and March 1st) to increase customer spending power. But, this will mean we need to extend the campaign beyond the "less than 30 days" that Kickstarter recommends (probably closer to 35 or 40). Is this a valuable trade-off, or is shorter basically always better?
- We have a small but pretty high quality e-mail list of about 1300 people. Does the Kickstarter algorithm significantly favor numerous small pledges over fewer large ones? Does it make a difference in terms of organic promotion? I ask because the answer will influence how we appeal to our list for pledges and engagement.
- We're looking at building a small pool of indie bloggers/influencers to appeal to in order to see if they'd be willing to write or post about our campaign after it's active. Has anyone had success with this approach? We won't be able to promise them anything in return (other than interesting content) but we do plan to launch an affiliate program shortly after launch. Any tips on how to get some traction with influencers under these circumstances is appreciated.
- We'd love any additional advice. If you've launched a campaign and there was something you wish you knew on your first launch, please share it.
This is my first post on Reddit so bear with me if I've missed some board etiquette that I'm not aware of.
PS - Regarding details of the project, we plan to reveal details when we get closer to launch, and discuss more on other subreddits related to the Skincare/Beauty niche. Maybe that will help get us a little exposure. My personal impression is that a lot of the subreddits are marketing spam, but I may be misinterpreting them.
Wrestling Observer Rewind ★ Mar. 27, 2000
Going through old issues of the Wrestling Observer Newsletter and posting highlights in my own words. For anyone interested, I highly recommend signing up for the actual site at f4wonline and checking out the full archives. PREVIOUS YEARS ARCHIVE: submitted by daprice82 to SquaredCircle [link] [comments]
1991 • 1992 • 1993 • 1994 • 1995 • 1996 • 1997 • 1998 • 1999
Just gotta give a shout-out to JamesCDiamond who did something pretty awesome. He went back to the beginning of the 1991 Rewinds and made a YouTube playlist of all the videos I've put in these posts over the years. (Some things, like DailyMotion videos obviously couldn't be added, so it's not quite everything but it's close.) The result is a playlist of nearly 800 videos featuring some of the most interesting, newsworthy, obscure, historic, and forgotten videos of 1990s professional wrestling. Check it out HERE.
READ: Promotion Dispute With WWF Jeopardizes Film - New York Times (Mar. 20, 2000)
- Chris Craft Industries agreed to sell its 50% ownership stake in UPN to Viacom for $5 million, which is one of the last hurdles left to finalizing the WWF/CBS deal. CCI had tried to block the CBS/Viacom merger due to its own deal with Viacom over UPN where they couldn't make a deal with a competing network. CCI didn't have a lot of say in the matter. They filed a lawsuit to try to block the CBS/Viacom deal, but the NY Supreme Court ruled against them and gave them just a few days to accept Viacom's $5 million offer to buy out their half, which is a tiny amount for half of a TV network. The deal still has to go through FCC approval because this will end up with Viacom owning both CBS and UPN, and there's laws about one entity owning more than one TV network but they're expected to make it work. According to most sources, WWF making a deal with CBS is all but a definite now. It will result in Smackdown most likely staying on UPN while Raw and other WWF TV shows will move to TNN (which is expected to get a name change and face-lift to make it a less southern network) later this year.
- Vince McMahon did an interview on the WWF website this week where he responded to all the controversy around Beyond The Mat. Needless to say, Vince came off poorly. Vince's main complaint was that the movie shows all these WWF wrestlers and scenes from within the company, but WWF doesn't have any financial stake in the movie, which Vince claimed was unfair. Which is true, but as Dave points out, that's the contract they signed and lord knows WWF has never had any qualms about holding people to unfavorable contracts. WWF agreed to allow cameras to film at WWF events for the movie without any interference or control over the product, and now they're upset that they're having to own up to the stipulations of the contract. Furthermore, a documentary where the main subject has a financial stake in the project instantly kills any credibility the film might have. Vince also claims he was told that the film would be a limited release project, not a nationwide theatrical release. Dave calls bullshit, noting that Universal Pictures and director Barry Blaustein have been talking from the very beginning of trying to give the film a national release and aiming for major awards. With Ron Howard producing it, everybody expected there was a good chance it would be nationally released. McMahon also said he was upset at the advertising which has dubbed it, "The movie Vince McMahon doesn't want you to see." McMahon said he doesn't care if people see it or not. Of course, the fact that his PR team has gone out of their way to bury the movie (putting out statements calling it "boring") and the fact that Vince pressured both UPN and USA to stop airing ads for it proves otherwise. After saying he didn't care if people saw it, Vince went on to call it a disappointing snooze-fest, said it's a lie that lacks entertainment value and shouldn't be considered a documentary. But he totally doesn't care if you see it....
- Vince also complained that Mick Foley won't be making any money from the film (again, that's kinda how documentaries work) and was upset that WWF's intellectual property is being used. But, again, this is the deal WWF agreed to when they signed up for it. Vince also complained that the nature of the movie changed several times during filming, which is actually true. The original idea for the film was to follow young wrestlers as they attempt to make it to the WWF, but as they began filming and uncovering more things, the concept of the movie changed. Vince said he had offered producers triple the cost of the film in order to have a financial stake in it (presumably so he could then order a bunch of changes) but was turned down. WWF had agreed to advertise the movie up until the moment they didn't, and ads were scheduled to run before they were pulled at the last minute, which further proves that WWF was involved up until the moment that Vince decided he didn't want people to see it. McMahon has denied that he pressured USA or UPN to pull the ads, but other sources say otherwise and it would surely be a weird fuckin' coincidence if that was the case. Especially for UPN, which is badly in debt and isn't in the habit of turning down advertising money without a good reason. The New York Times last week ran a story on the whole ordeal, including a quote from Ron Howard who said he believes Vince is trying to shut down the movie to keep anyone from seeing it and that Vince doesn't want viewers to see his wrestlers as real people. It's also said that both Vince and Linda McMahon were particularly unhappy with the scene depicting Foley's children crying while their father is beaten to death by the Rock with chair shots. Anyway, Lion's Gate is apparently considering filing a lawsuit over all this, since they claim to have contracts for advertising that WWF, USA, and UPN violated.
WATCH: Villano III vs. Atlantis - Mask vs. Mask match
- Anyway, Beyond The Mat is out nationwide now and the reviews are gold. It already won several film festival awards, has been getting lots of 3-and-4 star reviews from all the big movie outlets. Roger Ebert, who is not a wrestling fan, said watching the movie made him realize just how real pro wrestling actually is. It has gotten some negative reviews, mostly from people who felt it didn't go hard enough on wrestling and complaining that it didn't address the drug and steroid issues. Dave's take: hey, it's a 2 hour movie, they couldn't tackle everything. The film chose the story it wanted to tell and told it well, but no, it wasn't a full blown take-down of the wrestling industry as some critics were hoping it would be. Anyway, from here Dave just shares a bunch of reviews from different media outlets, mostly raving about it.
- Foley was given permission by McMahon to appear on the Larry King Live show (along with hulk Hogan, Roddy Piper, and producer Barr Blaustein) to promote the movie and he came off great. Piper talked about hoping that wrestlers in the future could get medical benefits and retirement and saying that they need to have a union (which Foley agreed with, surely to McMahon's delight). They eventually got into a little back and forth, with Foley calling Piper bitter at one point. Hogan claimed he liked the movie and wished he was in it but didn't contribute much otherwise. He and Foley did talk about wanting to work with each other, with Hogan claiming they could sell out the Pontiac Silverdome together. During the show, both Piper and Hogan complained about the long list of injuries they've suffered in their careers. In a later radio interview, Foley scoffed at that, saying he's had more injuries than both of them combined. He also said that Piper is always in character and dismissed most of what he said. During the same interview, Foley said he didn't think Mae Young should be taking bumps and she definitely shouldn't be stripping to her bra and panties on TV anymore. When asked about his retirement, he said, "Sometimes I feel like I'm the only one who feels that I'm actually retired. Nobody believes me. I will probably come back for one big match in about a year, but for right now, believe it or not, I'm working on some children's books and other projects." (Fun fact, Dave notes: Foley un-retired 3 days after this. But we'll get to that in a moment...)
- Villano III lost his mask to Atlantis in one of the biggest matches in Mexican wrestling history, in the main event of CMLL's first ever PPV. Villano III is probably one of the top 15 or so stars in the history of Lucha Libre and had worn the mask for 27 years. The show packed 20,000 people into Arena Mexico, which is thousands more than the usual capacity. The show sold out in advance, the fastest sellout in the 67-year history of CMLL. They put 4,000 standing room only tickets on sale the next day and they sold out immediately also.
WATCH: Joey Styles infomercial
- WCW Uncensored is in the books and it was the most WCW show possible. For a company that desperately needs to chart a new course for the future, instead Hogan won his main event match with Flair--twice--and basically won the world title match that he wasn't even in. Dave says the worse things get for WCW and the more obvious it becomes that something has to change, they just keep doubling down on the same mistakes that got them into this mess. WCW also threw in the towel when it comes to selling tickets, and barely promoted the show locally. The PPV drew 2,543 paid fans, which is less than ECW did for their PPV last week. And they did about 47,000 buys on PPV, which is also half of what ECW's PPV did last week also and is by far the lowest buyrate of any WWF, WCW, or ECW PPV ever. So yes, in case you're keeping track: a PPV event headlined by Hulk Hogan and Ric Flair got slaughtered in both attendance and buyrate by an ECW PPV the week before. That's how far this company has fallen.
- Other notes from the PPV: Chris Candido debuted and is apparently going to be part of the cruiserweight division. No Tammy Sytch yet but she's still expected soon (Dave contradicts this later in this same issue). Bam Bam Bigelow faced The Wall and the highlight of that match was Wall splitting his pants. In the Jarrett/Sid Vicious world title match, Hogan had to run in and give Jarrett the leg drop, then dragged Sid on top of him for the win, thus establishing that Hogan basically beat Jarrett, not Sid. Then the main event was the Hogan/Flair strap match. The announcers talked about how the only way to win was to drag your opponent to each corner, meanwhile, Hogan and Flair were busy trying to pin each other and the referee was counting, so nobody knew what the actual rules were. Hogan pinned Flair to win the match and then, just to make sure everyone got the point, he also dragged him to all 4 corners afterward. LOLHOGANDOUBLEWINZ.
- At NJPW's upcoming Tokyo Dome show next month, IWGP champion Kensuke Sasaki will face IWGP Junior heavyweight champion Jushin Liger. It'll be the first time in NJPW history that the heavyweight and junior heavyweight champions have faced each other. The show also has Ogawa vs. Hashimoto and Muta vs. Chono and will air on TV-Asahi live in prime time (this show ends up doing a MONSTER rating on TV).
- XPW in California is planning to start running monthly shows at the 17,000-seat Los Angeles Sports Arena which is a pretty ambitious place to be running shows. XPW also will start airing a weekly show on the America One Network in the L.A. area. They have also offered big contracts to names like Sabu and Shane Douglas, because apparently they've got a lot of money to throw around since they're funded by a successful porn company.
- New Jack is expected to be back in about 2 weeks after his scary injury at the recent ECW PPV.
- Joey Styles is appearing in an infomercial selling colorized dollars and coins for New England Mint.
WATCH: The Rock's full monologue from SNL in 2000
- Lots of rumors going around about potential management changes in WCW. The word around the locker room is that Eric Bischoff will be returning to take over control from Bill Busch (not exactly). There's thought that bringing Bischoff back may also make Sonny Onoo's racial discrimination lawsuit go away, since Onoo and Bischoff are close friends. Bischoff has denied he's coming back, but nobody believes him, which tells you all you need to know about his credibility among the wrestlers. Dave says WCW is desperate right now, since the last 2 PPV buyrates were embarrassing beyond anyone's wildest imagination and ticket sales for upcoming shows are reaching scary low numbers.
- Dave breaks down the plans for Spring Stampede and talks about how the current idea is to eventually build for Goldberg vs. Sid Vicious. But Dave thinks in this case, Hogan should actually win the title and then drop it to Goldberg. Obviously, Hogan as world champion is the last thing WCW needs to be doing right now under normal circumstances. But Hogan's name still means more than Sid's. And if they want to make Goldberg the face of the company, it would mean more for him to be the one to finally vanquish Hogan once and for all. So Dave thinks they should put the belt on Hogan for a quickie title reign when the time comes, and then have him drop it to Goldberg in decisive fashion. And after that, Hogan needs to fuck off forever down to the mid-card. But obviously, the big problem here is getting Hogan to agree to any of that. He has full creative control of whatever he wants to do and he's not looking out for anyone but himself, so what's in WCW's best interest isn't necessarily what Hogan is going to want to do. And nobody can stop him.
- WCW's new policy of cutting people's pay in half when they've been out injured has hit 2 new victims. Both Kevin Nash and DDP got their pay cut to 50%. Dave thinks this new policy is more bad than good. It's good because WCW has a history of guys milking injuries and taking off more time than they need just so they can sit home and collect a paycheck. So this will encourage guys to stop being lazy and return to work. That's good. But the bad side is that it's going to force wrestlers who really are hurt to come back to work too soon or to not take time off at all when they're injured. That in itself pretty much guarantees more injuries and more drug issues and Dave knows of examples in WCW of that very thing already happening.
- Scott Hall is still out "injured" and he's expected to face some sort of punishment once he comes back for all the incidents that occurred before he got hurt. Remember, he was expected to be fired after his main event match at SuperBrawl, but he conveniently got hurt at the very end of the match and now WCW doesn't want to fire him because it opens a whole can of worms to fire a guy who just got injured in your ring (despite all the skepticism, Hall apparently really was hurt. He ends up getting neck surgery during this time off).
- Notes from Nitro: Chris Candido debuted in his first match, beating Lash Leroux and looked good. In recent weeks, Vampiro has been the closest thing WCW has had to a younger star who has been getting over, so naturally, he lost to Lex Luger because god forbid one of the old top guys in this company aside from Flair ever be willing to put over somebody else. Ric Flair was the best in-ring performer on the show, carrying Sting for the millionth time to a good match. But Dave says Flair may need to start wrestling in a shirt because no matter how decent he still is in the ring, his physique is gone and it's hard to take him seriously. He also says Flair should be a special attraction at this point instead of wrestling every week but WCW is determined to always do the opposite of what they should do, so whatever. And in the main event, Sid turned on Hogan (they were partners in a tag team match) and choke slammed him, then Sid pinned Hogan and the ref actually counted, which is stupid. So the team of Hogan & Sid both won and lost the main event apparently.
- Goldberg is expected to return to the ring in May. He reportedly lost nearly 30 pounds due to not being able to work out while injured so they're giving him an extra month or so to get his look back before he returns. In the meantime, he's making a ton of media appearances to promote Ready To Rumble and other stuff.
- WCW has reportedly decided not to hire Tammy Sytch after all, feeling she's too much of a risk due to her well-known issues (nah, they still bring her in).
- Several people reported "problems" with a recent WCW.com poll that asked fans to vote on what they thought was the best match at Uncensored. Basically, no matter what you picked, it added extra votes to other matches instead. Wanna guess how that went? Basically, it ended up with the Hogan vs. Flair match getting the majority of the votes, even when you voted for something else. When someone pointed this out on the Observer online show, WCW immediately changed the website so that you couldn't see the vote totals anymore.
- Bret Hart has been telling people he may be forced to retire due to his concussion issues. He's still suffering from bad headaches, slurred speech, occasional memory loss, and losing his train of thought. He said that even if he does come back, he'll never take anymore shots to the head. In a recent interview, he put the blame on Goldberg, saying that Goldberg closed his eyes when he threw the kick that gave him the concussion and couldn't see where he was aiming the kick, which hit Bret super hard in the head. He said he wasn't bitter at Goldberg, but said, "The kind of accident that happened with me is somebody was just a little too real with his kicks." If Bret does end up retiring, it doesn't sound like he'll miss it much, saying, "The wrestling profession is in the toilet. I am looking forward to running as far away from it as fast as possible. I look forward to a day not only when I can wash my hands of it completely, but never have anything to do with any aspect of it."
- And in one other Bret Hart note, he appeared on the Geraldo Rivera show because they were talking about Beyond The Mat. Rivera was extremely dismissive and negative towards wrestling in general. At one point, it was brought up that Hart is working on an autobiography about his years in the business. Later on, apparently after they were off the air, Geraldo said the book would make a good door stopper since it's about wrestling. The remark was apparently not meant to be heard, but Bret did indeed overhear it and was pretty offended, as you can imagine. In related news, fuck Geraldo Rivera.
- Hulk Hogan recently did a radio interview saying he was back in WCW because the younger wrestlers there can't cut it, so he's back to save the company. Dave thinks that's sure to help morale.
- More on Gene Okerlund's recent DUI arrest in Tampa. The local news there reported that he ran a red light and was weaving in and out of traffic and almost hit a police car before he was pulled over.
- Psicosis and Juventud Guerrera's contracts both expire in October. Dave doesn't think either is going to stay with the company but it might depend on where WCW is by then. If they've started making moves to push younger stars, then it might be worth it to stay. But otherwise, he expects them to leave. WWF probably won't want either of them, but ECW would. Dave says that aside from Kidman and Goldberg, there's probably nobody in WCW that Paul Heyman wants more than Guerrera. But unless ECW gets a bigger network deal (their days are probably numbered on TNN if/when this WWF deal goes through), with a lot more cash, they probably can't afford him. (Dave doesn't know it yet, but at this point, Psicosis has already wrestled his final WCW match. He'd show up in ECW a couple months later. He's right about Juvi though. He stuck around until October when his contract was up and bounced. Didn't end up in ECW though).
- Bryan Clarke (formerly Wrath) and Brian Adams will be forming a team called Kronik. Dave thinks Clarke has potential (although he says Nash basically buried him during his time as booker) but Brian Adams is useless and brings nothing to the table, so why are they saddling Clarke with him?
- Mick Foley is already returning to the ring, and will be headlining Wrestlemania in a 4-way match alongside Triple H, The Rock, and Big Show. According to Foley, he says he planned to really stay retired, at least for awhile. But nobody believed him anyway, and the chance for a big payoff and to achieve his dream of main eventing Wrestlemania came along and so now he's decided to work the match. Dave doesn't seem to be buying it and looking back on the angle leading up to Foley's "retirement", he things it looks like this was planned from the beginning, that No Way Out was never REALLY going to be his last match. Either way, he seems disappointed. Before No Way Out, Foley cut one of the best promos Dave had ever heard (literally calls it one of the 10 best promos in the history of the business) talking about how much he was against prostituting his retirement and wasn't going to be one of those guys who came back just to get one last payday and vowing that if he lost the match, he really was retiring. And now, literally only 3 weeks later, he's already announced a comeback. Dave thinks it's a pretty big blemish on Foley's credibility and says for all the jokes people make about Terry Funk retiring, at least he stayed retired for 17 months the first time. And when Funk returned, Japanese fans in particular never fully forgave him for going back on his word and his popularity there was never the same (Foley wrote about this in his book. If I remember correctly, Foley still claims that he really was going to retire but I guess Vince called him and convinced him to come back for this match).
- Notes from Raw: it was in Chicago and the crowd was nuclear hot, probably one of the hottest crowds in Raw history. In fact, they may have been too hot, because during the Acolytes match, 2 women in the crowd took their shirts off, which completely derailed that match since no one in the crowd cared about it anymore. During Linda McMahon's entrance at the end of the show, a fan jumped the barricade and ran up the ramp towards Linda. Luckily, Triple H jumped on him before he could do anything as the camera cut away. Edge got into a shoving match with a fan while making his entrance through the crowd. Trish Stratus was at ringside for Test's match and then announced she was going to be managing Test and Albert as a new team T&A. And her mic skills here were baaaaad. Dave says she made Sable sound like The Rock on the mic. The lines she was given were bad to begin with but her reading of them was terrible (yeah it wasn't good. But to be fair, it's her very first time ever speaking on camera. She's clearly nervous as hell. She would get MUCH better in later years). Anyway, this new team isn't for them, it's mostly being used as a platform to give Trish a big promotional push, since they see dollar $ign$ with her. Speaking of Trish, the T&A idea wasn't the first idea they had for her. The original idea was for her to play a porn star and be affiliated with Val Venis, but she refused to go along with that idea.
- At this point, neither Austin or Undertaker is expected to appear at Wrestlemania, although they will both be in town for the fan fest the day before signing autographs and whatnot. That could still change at the last minute but as of now, they're both still too messed up to do anything. And they feel it doesn't serve any purpose to have either of them on the show if they can't do anything physically. They're hopeful that Austin will be in decent enough condition by next month's PPV to at least show up and deliver a stunner or two.
- There had been talks of doing an exploding ring match between X-Pac and Kane at Wrestlemania, similar to Onita's famous matches. But they dropped the idea because they didn't think they had enough time to plan it and get familiar with it. They didn't want it to go wrong and not look good at Wrestlemania of all shows. Plus, without having time to fully test something like that beforehand, they also don't want to risk something going wrong and someone getting hurt.
- Saturday Night Live was hosted by the Rock and featured guest appearances by Big Show, Foley, Triple H, and Vince McMahon. It was considered a big success, with Rock coming off like a star. All the other wrestlers played their parts well also and it was the highest rated SNL episode of this season. In fact, it was the highest rated episode since an episode from last year that featured a Monica Lewinsky appearance.
WATCH: Other highlights from The Rock on SNL in 2000
WATCH: Eddie Guerrero power bombs Lita
- Taka Michinoku is still rehabbing his shoulder from the injury suffered at Royal Rumble. Doctors recommended he have surgery but he's trying to avoid it. He wants to come back 100% because he's excited about the opportunity to work with Eddie Guerrero and Dean Malenko. His contract expires in October and he has said he'd like to stay in WWF.
- The Owen Hart family lawsuit against WWF is expected to go to trial in Feb. 2001 but will probably be delayed several times before then.
- The WWF Restaurant in Times Square is going to turn into a night club on weekend nights. To try to bring in more people, the night club area of the building will have almost no WWF-tie ins. No wrestling merch or logos or anything like that around because, turns out, the kind of super cool hip people who hang out in NYC night clubs on Saturday nights till 3am aren't really wrestling fans. So that will all be exclusively in the restaurant side. New York mayor Rudy Guiliani has publicly come out against the night club because WWF plans to allow people under 21 to enter. Guiliani publicly warned WWF that at the first sign of trouble from the night club, "we're going to bust you from A-to-Z and back again." Speaking of the restaurant, word is it does good business on Mondays and Thursdays, as people watch Raw and Smackdown there, but it's not really doing well on most other nights, even though it's right in the middle of Times Square and literally thousands of people per hour walk past it.
- Remember the case in Florida with the 12-year-old kid killing the 6-year-old girl and how Rock was subpoened for it? WWF lawyer Jerry McDevitt wrote a blistering letter to the defense attorney and the mother of the accused killer, blasting them for trying to blame WWF or wrestling for what happened and for subpoening the Rock. "Your statements and associated innuendo that either the WWF, Dwayne Johnson, or both, have some causative role with and to the brutal murder committed by your client are false," the letter said. "Nobody need look any further than the actions of your client and his mother to understand why Tiffany died that day." The mother was home when it happened but was in another room. The WWF has threatened to sue the defense lawyer to prevent Rock from testifying. Speaking of, since WCW was in Florida last week, but Hulk Hogan and Sting were also subpoened to testify in the trial. The lawyer responded to McDevitt's letter, saying, "If the WWF doesn't like the media exposure of children being hurt or killed by other children imitating professional wrestling, do not blame me. Blame your shameless marketing of violence to children." When asked about Hogan and Sting, he responded, "I want Hulk to provide the jury with a historical perspective of pro wrestling, on how pro wrestling became increasingly violent and how it caters to kids. And Sting is important because he shot a Sprite commercial where he is shown grabbing a kid, sending him through a window and rattling his head on a fireplace mantel."
- Lita suffered a severe concussion, dizziness, and double vision when Eddie Guerrero power bombed her on the floor on Raw a couple of weeks ago but she was back on the road this week working matches against Jacqueline.
WEDNESDAY: Eric Bischoff and Vince Russo returning to take over WCW, in-depth look at WrestleMania history, tons of other misc. stuff, and more...
- The Rock is expected to miss most of May and June because he will be in England filming his role in the new Mummy movie. So if he wins the title at Wrestlemania, it will likely be a short title reign.
- Lots of letters this week, most of them about Beyond The Mat. One guy writes and talks about how dark the movie was and how he can see why Vince wants to suppress the film, because it paints a dark picture of the business and the way it affects people's lives. He's worried the movie will give critics more ammo to target wrestling. Dave responds and says if you think the movie is an honest portrayal and that it makes the wrestling business looks bad, that says more about the business than the movie. If it gives the critics more ammo, maybe it's because the critics are worth listening to. Wrestling is a fucked up, dirty industry and instead of being mad that someone is shining a light on it, maybe we should all pay more attention to what that light is exposing.
Checking in on the former Giants from the last 4 years
submitted by readercinco to SFGiants [link] [comments]
Hello everyone, for the last three years I've done a big post every offseason chronicling what has happened to Giants after they have left the Giants (2015
). At the end of this post, I go over all the players who retired before the 2018 season and give updates when I can find them. 2015 RHP Juan Gutierrez
DFA'd on November 21 2014
Gutierrez pitched 24 games in Winter Ball in Venezuela, posting a 5.96 ERA in 24 games for Leones del Caracas as the closer (8 saves). He didn't play with a team during the regular season, making me think he'll be in the retired section next year. RHP Kendry Flores
Traded December 19 2014 in the Casey McGehee trade
Flores hasn't pitched in affiliated ball since the Cardinals voided his minor league deal due to a shoulder issue before Spring Training in 2017. He made it into 8 games in the big leagues with the Marlins from 2015-16. It's funny to think back to him being considered a bigger prospect than the next guy in the McGehee trade. RHP Luis Castillo
Traded December 19 2014 in the Casey McGehee trade
Castillo finished his first full season in the bigs and wasn't as impressive as his rookie year, as he went from quite the great pitcher last year to about average this year (98 ERA+). Still, he's quite the special arm
with great movement on his fastball and changeup, and it's a bad look that the Giants let him get away. 3B/1B/OF Chris Dominguez
DFA'd on January 30
Dominguez caught on with the Nationals AAA team, and hit .243/.293/.406 (93 wRC+) in 84 games while playing all of the corner spots other than right field. He's been able to hold on in AAA longer than I expected. RHP Erik Cordier
DFA'd on May 18
It appears Cordier has retired after he was released from the Red Sox AAA team last year, now working for Impact Sports Academy, a baseball and softball instructional academy. 3B/1B Casey McGehee
DFA'd on May 24
McGehee completed his second season with the Yomiuri Giants in 2018, hitting .288/.338/.472 which saw his OPS fall 87 points from 2017. Once again he got significant time at second base, starting 60 games there, which is quite the image. RHP Jean Machi
DFA'd on July 20
Machi made 1 appearance in Venezuela for winter ball, tossing a scoreless inning. He made 28 appearances in Mexico for Diablos Rojos del Mexico (must be UNC's rivals), posting a 5.2 ERA in 27 games (10 saves). I know a lot of parks in Mexico are at a high elevation, so that could explain the ERA. His return to America was successful - he posted a .84 ERA for the Sugar Land Skeeters in 21.1 IP, although his 21K/11BB ratio suggests he might've had some luck. He played with a few former major leaguers for the Skeeters, the most notable being Derek Norris and Paco Rodriguez. He also managed to not get arrested for peeing on a car and asking to fight the car owner. RHP Keury Mella
Traded on July 30 to the Reds in the Mike Leake trade
As with the McGehee trade, the prospect of higher regard turned out not to be the one to enjoy the most success. Mella again broke into the big leagues this year, but put up a 8.68 ERA in 9.1 IP of work (4 games). Mella had a nice year in the minors, posting a 3.07 ERA in 16 starts in AA (85 IP, 87K/31BB) and a 2.74 ERA in AAA in 5 starts (23 IP, 14K/6BB). However, he was 25 and repeating AA which doesn't speak well for his long term prospects. His season ended in late August with a left oblique strain, ending any hope of a September callup. 1B/LF Adam Duvall
Traded July 30 to the Reds in the Mike Leake trade
While Duvall has been good enough to make trading him away a mistake, he's also fallen off every season since his hot start to 2015 - his OPS+ by season starting in 2015 goes 112, 106, 99, 69. He was bad with the Reds before the Braves traded for him, where he was even worse (.132/.193/.151, -5 OPS+). He is arbitration eligible, but I'd expect the Braves to trade or non-tender him. His defense, the concern in San Francisco, has continued to be graded well in left field - he put 17 DRS in left field last year. Unfortunately for him, he might've fallen off right before he could expect some good paydays in arbitration. If he can get back to where he was last year, an average hitter with a good glove in an outfield corner, he's a useful player. If he hits like he did this year, he's quad-A. RHP Stephen Johnson
Traded August 20 to the Reds in the Marlon Byrd trade
After Johnson finished up 2017 in the Giants system, he signed with the Lancaster Barnstormers, an independent league team, where he struck out 63 in 52 innings on his way to a 2.94 ERA (43 games, 2 starts, 23 BB). He played with a few former major leaguers, most notably Jimmy Paredes and former Giant Matt Reynolds. LHP Luis Ysla
Traded August 31 to the Red Sox in the Alejandro De Aza trade
After pitching in one Spring Training game for the Dodgers in 2018, they traded him to the Orioles, where Ysla put up a 4.98 ERA in AA (72.1 IP, 28G/9GS, 83K/45BB) and a 6.45 ERA in the 5 games he pitched in AAA (5GS, 22.1 IP, 18K/13BB). As with many minor league pitchers, the walks are doing him in. Ysla will play for Bravos de Margarita in Venezuela. 1B/OF Ryan Lollis
DFA'd August 31
Lollis finally got that callup in 2015 after years in the minor leagues, making it into 5 games in the majors. The longtime minor leaguer was in the Giants minor league system from 2009-17, but it appears that might be the end of the line as he didn't play affiliated ball in 2018. OF Daniel Carbonell
DFA'd September 16 2015
Carbonell was released after 4 games in Richmond this April in which he posted a .071/.176/.071 (-24 wRC+), and he caught on in Mexico, hitting .324/.385/.493 (123 wRC+). Carbonell represents continuing failure in the international market for the Giants - they signed him for $1,400,000 in 2014, and the highest level of baseball he reached in the Giants org was the 84 games he played in AAA. 2016 C Jackson Williams
Outrighted October 15 2015
I won't blame you if you don't remember the 7 games he played for the Giants. Williams played 26 games between AA and AAA for the Pirates, hitting .221/.277/.314 (65 wRC+). INF Nick Noonan
Outrighted October 15 2015
Noonan again failed to break into the big leagues, playing most of his season in AAA with the Rangers, hitting .256/.297/.363 (72 wRC+) in 75 games after failing to make the A's out of Spring Training. OF Alejandro de Aza
filed for free agency November 2 2015
de Aza's time with the Giants was brief, and his time in the majors might be over, as he didn't play in the bigs for the first season since 2008. He hit .302/.420/.387 in 32 games with the Nationals AAA team (133 wRC+), before they released him in early August. de Aza will play with the Cardenales de Lara in Venezuela. RHP Tim Lincecum
filed for free agency November 2 2015
Surely you're not reading this is if you don't know what happened with Lincecum. In a last-ditch effort he finally agreed to try becoming a reliever, and signed on with the Rangers. He didn't break camp with the team because of a blister issue, and headed to AAA-Round Rock on a rehab assignment, where he had a 5.68 ERA (10K/9BB in 12.1 IP) in 10 games. When the Rangers ran out of rehab days, they elected to release him instead of adding him to the big league roster. I'd expect a ceremony for him at AT&T Park in the upcoming years. RHP Mike Leake
filed for free agency November 2 2015
This sure was a bad trade. Leake was bad after the Giants traded for him, posting one start against a post-clinch Dodger lineup in a meaningless that makes his overall stats look better than he deserves. The Cardinals essentially salary dumped him last year to the Mariners because they regretted giving up big money to him, which was quite predictable, and he posted another below average season for Seattle, contributing 185.2 innings of a 4.36 ERA and a 93 ERA+. He is signed through 2020. OF Nori Aoki
filed for free agency November 4 2015
After playing with three different teams in the majors last year, Aoki returned to Japan for 2018, receiving a nice deal from the Yakult Swallows, 3 years for 9.19 million. Aoki hit .327/.410/.477 and finished with 5 more walks than strikeouts. Aoki was a good Giant, and he was maybe the best player on that 2015 team until a HBP broke his foot. OF Juan Perez
Outrighted November 6 2015
Perez was unable to find a camp invite and played 39 games in Mexico, catching back on with the Acercos del Norte in July after they released him in May, and he hit .299/.356/.469 (151 wRC+) in 6 games. RHP Yusmeiro Petit
non-tendered December 2 2015
After a really strong season out of the Angels pen in 2017, Petit took a step back in 2018 - his ERA only went from 2.76 to 3, but because of ballpark factors his ERA+ fell 15 points to 139 and his 3.92 FIP suggests he was the benefactor of some luck (he hasn't shown throughout his career that he can beat his FIP). He's still thriving in the big leagues and shouldn't have trouble finding a major league deal in free agency. C Hector Sanchez
non-tendered December 2 2015
Sanchez didn't play in the big leagues for the first season since 2010. He appeared in Giants camp, but only appeared in 6 games before getting injured. Once healthy, he hit .241/.326/.329 (77 wRC+) in 24 games for Sacramento before being released in May after his 8th concussion. Switch hitting catchers don't have trouble finding minor league roles, but after all these concussions it's probably not worth it anymore for Sanchez. RHP Cody Hall
DFA'd January 8
Hall caught on with the Rays for Spring Training, and after not making the big league squad he pitched 10 games in AAA (2.84 ERA) before being demoted to AA, where he had a 3.72 ERA in 9 games, before being released in late June. RHP Ian Gardeck
Released April 30
Gardeck found his way back onto the Giants 40-man again in 2017 before being released again, and ended up signing a minor league deal with the Giants. He appeared in real games for the first time since September 2015, having torn his UCL during his second outing in big league camp in 2016, and then tearing it again while recovering from the first surgery. He struggled in his rehab assignments in rookie ball and high-A, but after getting promoted to AA pitched six scoreless innings. I wouldn't be surprised if he finds his way onto the big league roster at some point next year if he's able to put together a good and healthy year in the upper minors. RHP Vin Mazzaro
DFA'd May 6
Mazarro still hasn't pitched in the big leagues since his two game stint with the Giants that saw him post a 54 ERA. He spent the year in independent ball, playing for the New Jersey Jackals, where he posted a 1.76 ERA in 34 games (24 finished, 10 saves) and punch out 44 in 46 games. Unfortunately, he had to be teammates with Mat Latos. RHP Jake Smith
DFA'd June 30
Smith was long one of the cooler stories in the Giants minor leagues - he had gone from being one of the groundskeepers for the San Jose Giants to pitching for them, and eventually getting to point where the Giants added him to the 40-man. While he never suited up in a regular season game for them, he did for the Padres in 2016. He pitched 8 games in the 17-18 season of Winter ball in Puerto Rico, earning a 2.16 ERA. Despite saying he was going to take more care of his body
, Smith wasn't able to find a camp invite anywhere in 2018. RHP Mike Broadway
DFA'd July 4
Broadway showed a little potential in a late season call up in 2015, but lost plenty of velocity going into 2016 and lost a lot of value. Broadway had a 7.91 ERA in AAA for Kansas City (23K/12BB/5HR in 19.1 IP) and got released in June, but the Rays saw enough to sign him - and for their AAA team, he improved to a 3.6 ERA, punching out 38 in 30 innings. In true Rays fashion, he even started a game as the opener, giving up 4 runs and only getting one out. Broadway will play for the Charros de Jalisco
, a Winter League team in Mexico. IF Ruben Tejada
DFA'd July 20
After failing to make the Orioles out of Spring Training, Tejada failed to crack the big leagues for the first season since 2009, spending his entire season in Norfolk, the Orioles AAA team. He hit just .230/.291/.298 (67 wRC+) in 2018 and elected minor league free agency at on November 2. IF/OF Grant Green
DFA'd July 28
Green played for the Acercos del Norte in 2018, hitting .281/.317/.333 (64 wRC+) before getting released. LHP Adalberto Mejia
Traded July 28 to the Twins in the Nunez deal
At the time, I wasn't a fan of the Giants giving up Mejia for a year and a half of Nunez, and I couldn't have been more wrong, especially because (as I'll cover later) the Giants did well for themselves in trading Nunez away. Mejia started 4 games and made one relief appearance in the bigs in 2018. While his 2.01 ERA looks very good, his 13/9 K/BB and 4.06 FIP suggest luck. He had a 3.27 ERA in 15 games (12 starts) in AAA. Giving up Mejia for Nunez was nowhere near as bad as I thought it would be. IF Ramiro Pena
DFA'd July 29
Pena managed to be a league average bat in the 30 games he played with the Giants in 2016, although he needed a high BABIP to do so. In 2018, he played in Mexico, posting a .303/.361/.436 line (92 wRC+) for the Sulatnes de Monterrey, where, in a funny coincidence, he was managed by former Giants base coach Roberto Kelly. As he always has, he is playing winter ball for the Tomateros de Culican right now. SS Lucius Fox
Traded August 1 to the Rays in the Moore trade
While the Giants lost the Moore trade just by having Moore pitch for them in 2017, Fox continued not be an impressive hitter in the minor leagues - he hit .268/.351/.341 (104 wRC+) across high-A (which he was repeating) and AA. Fox is still just 21, but it's looking increasingly more likely he'll never hit enough to be the impact player he was projected to be. Fox was one of the winners of the 2018 AFL Championship Game. RHP Michael Santos
Traded August 1 to the Rays in the Moore trade
The Rays released Santos in March and the Angels scooped him up a few days later. Santos was good in A-Ball (2.89 ERA in 15G/5GS) and not in the 4 games (3 starts) he played in high-A (7.23 ERA). What's concerning for him is he's lost his incredible control - when the Giants traded him, he had only walked 5 in 58.2 IP in Augusta. In 2018, he walked 21 (still not a lot) in 65.1 IP. 3B Matt Duffy
Traded August 1 to the Rays in the Moore trade
It sure is funny looking at the 2016 post where I talk about Duffy playing shortstop because the Rays already have a good third basemen.
Duffy battled back to play in the big leagues in 2018, and he showed why the Rays wanted him, hitting .294/.361/.366 (106 wRC+) and being a much better player than Evan Longoria on both sides of the ball. He'll probably never replicate his 4.5 win rookie season, but he's a solid, capable regular (maybe a little below average) every team would like to have. RHP Phil Bickford
Traded August 1 to the Brewers in the Will Smith trade
I hated the Will Smith trade. I didn't understand why the Giants were giving up on Bickford and Susac for a reliever who had mediocre stats at the time in Smith. Along with trading for and then trading away Nunez, it's turned out to be among the best moves of Bobby Evans' tenure.
Bickford has turned out to be a headcase. After getting suspended for marijuana in 2016, he has been unsuccessful - a 4.67 ERA in 34.2 IP in high A for Milwaukee probably doesn't have him shooting up any prospect charts. C Andrew Susac
Traded August 1 to the Brewers in the Will Smith trade
Everyone was high on Susac after his great stint in 2014, then the Giants opted to have Hector Sanchez start the season in 2015 as the backup catcher because Susac needed more at-bats in AAA, ignoring that Susac wouldn't have been the starting catcher on the Giants for many years. As predicted in last year's post, the Brewers did end up DFA'ing Susac, later trading him to the Orioles. He hit .115/.115/.154 (-39 wRC+) in 9 games for the Orioles when called up in May and didn't make it back to the bigs, missing a lot of time in the minor league season to injury, although he did hit well there when he played (.256/.405/.456, 147 wRC+). 2B Richard Rodriguez
Traded September 27 to the Braves in the Beckham trade
Needing to win all three games against the Dodgers in the final series of the 2016 regular season to secure a playoff spot, the Giants were in a tough spot because their preferred third base bat against lefties, Eduardo Nunez, was injured, there was no obvious right handed replacement, and the Dodgers were set to start two lefties in that series. Thus, the Giants traded for Gordon Beckham, knowing he wouldn't be eligible for the playoffs, sending Richard Rodriguez back.
Beckham hit a sac fly in one of the games. As far as I can tell, Rodriguez hasn't played baseball since the trade. LHP Matt Reynolds
DFA'd September 27
Reynolds didn't pitch in 2018 after spending 2017 playing for Sacramento. 2017 C Tony Sanchez
Outrighted November 2, 2016
The Giants called Sanchez up for the last few games of 2016, although he never appeared in a game for them. Sanchez signed a minor league deal in late February with the Reds, but they traded him to the Rangers in April. He hit .300/.353/.455 (111 wRC+) for the Rangers AAA team. IF Gordon Beckham
Declared free agency November 3, 2016
Beckham again somehow managed to make the big leagues in 2018, hitting just .182/.250/.205 in 21 games for the Mariners. He has an 81 OPS+ for his career. I don't know how he does it. RHP Sergio Romo
Declared free agency November 3, 2016
Romo re-signed with Tampa Bay after his great second half with them last year, and had a 4.14 ERA in 73 games. He started 5 games as the original opener for the Rays, because the Angels had terrible left handed bats and 4 right handed bats right at the top of their lineup. While the opener evolved, as Ryne Stanek mostly took over the role for the Rays (and Liam Hendriks for the A's) for times through the order reasons and not the platoon reason Romo did, it's still cool that Romo was the first to do it for Tampa. Romo is a free agent now, and might have some trouble finding a job, given that he had just an average ERA (which is obviously below average for a reliever). RHP Santiago Casilla
Filed for free agency November 3, 2016
I was at what ended up being Casilla's last game as an A - he came in to little fanfare and not all too many fans cheered for the man who has the lowest ERA in SF history (minimum 300 innings), which disappointed me. Casilla managed to have a 3.16 ERA in 26 games with the A's (4.05 FIP) before the DFA. He signed on with the Rockies and had a 8.03 ERA in 12 games with their AAA team. At age 38, I'd have to imagine this is the end of the road. I hope he gets a nice tribute at AT&T. Casilla earned his green card
(there were some complications because he used a fake name initially) earlier this year and lives in Miami in the offseason, where he plans to have his kids go to school. RHP Chris Heston
Traded to the Mariners December 7, 2016
Heston came out of nowhere to be a capable starting pitcher for the Giants in 2015 (although he was rough the last month and a half), before disappearing again, only making 7 appearances after 2015. Heston signed a true minor league deal with the Giants (although he appeared in 3 Spring Training games). Heston pitched in nine games among three different levels of the Giants system, posting a 2.79 ERA, before the organization released him in late July. IF Ehire Adrianza
DFA'd January 24
Adrianza played his second season with the Twins, where he again didn't hit (82 wRC+) but probably fielded well. He did hit 6 home runs, which was more than all the other seasons of his career combined. With over four years of service time, the Twins might keep him until he becomes a 6 year free agent. I would've bet against that. RHP Clayton Blackburn
DFA'd April 11
Blackburn never turned into the 5th starter he had been talked about for years as becoming. He had Tommy John Surgery during Spring Training and was outrighted at the beginning of November, declining the assignment. He was still rehabbing at home as of October 2018
. After an unimpressive 2017, he's probably looking at an independent league stint if he wants to get back to affiliated ball. LF Chris Marrero
DFA'd on April 24
We started to see people start to overreact to Spring Training this year when Kyle Jensen was hitting bombs, ignoring how Marrero was great in Spring Training then predictably terrible once the season started. Marrero again played in Japan, slashing .201/.282/.416 with 11 bombs in 68 games. RHP Neil Ramirez
DFA'd on April 30
Ramirez was called up by Cleveland, and despite a good start, still ended up a below average reliever for them, with a 4.57 ERA in 47 games. Terry Francona regularly used him in high-leverage situations (in the 9th inning, he should never be pitching in a tie game), and it cost him plenty of times. Ramirez is still under club control, although I'd expect him to be released once/if Cleveland needs a 40-man spot. OF Drew Stubbs
DFA'd May 6
Drew Stubbs being the everyday center fielder for a few weeks in 2017 was probably something you forgot, right? Stubbs failed to get an at-bat in the big leagues for the first season since 2008 and didn't even play in the minor leagues. Having made 15 million dollars in his career, he might have decided to hang them up. Or, we might hear later about him making a comeback. IF Aaron Hill
DFA'd June 29
It was reported Hill signed on with the Lake Erie Crushers of the Frontier League
, but the Aaron Hill listed on the Crushers website is a younger black guy
, and Baseball Reference has no reference of the former major leaguer Aaron Hill playing with the Crushers. 3B Eduardo Nunez
Traded to the Red Sox July 26
As I said before, trading Nunez was one of the better moves Bobby Evans made, as Shaun Anderson is seen as a pretty good prospect in the Giants system. Nunez really struggled in the regular season, hitting just .265/.289/.388, not able to replicate his blazing second half with the Red Sox last year. His line was worse than the one of Ehire Adrianza. He made up for it a bit in the playoffs, though, with that big home run off Alex Wood in game 1 of the World Series. IF Conor Gillaspie
DFA'd August 5
Gillaspie never caught on with a new team in 2018, and there's no information out there about what he's currently up to. RHP George Kontos
Traded August 5
Kontos posted a 5.03 ERA in 21 games with Pittsburgh before they released him. He then went to Cleveland, where he had a 3.38 ERA in 6 games before getting traded to the Yankees, who he only pitched one game for before getting released. 3B Jae-Gyun Hwang
Outrighted on September 1
After Bruce Bochy let Hwang hit against Kenley Jansen instead of using Panik off the bench because he thought Hwang had "the nose for an RBI," Hwang returned to Korea, slashing .296/.360.526 with 25 homers for the KT Wiz after agreeing to a nice 4 year, 7.85 million dollar deal. OF Carlos Moncrief
DFA'd September 5
The man made the best throw I've seen in person, although it wasn't in time to get Javier Baez. Moncrief played in Mexico for the Generales de Durango and tore shit up down there, hitting .338/.411/.537 (142 wRC+). C Trevor Brown
Outrighted October 2
Brown hit .242/.331/.273 in 41 games for the River Cats before he was released at the end of September. He'll have to try to catch on with another team's AAA squad. 2018 C Tim Federowicz
DFA'd October 30 2017
Federowicz managed to break back into the big leagues, playing 10 games for the Astros, then 5 games for the Reds. He should have a job waiting for him at someone AAA team, ready to get called up when a catcher gets injured. OF Hunter Cole
Traded November 15 2017 to the Rangers
Cole was the PTBNL the Giants surrendered in the trade that got them Sam Dyson. Cole hit AA very well (.330/.412/.515, 152 wRC+) and didn't hit AAA all that well (.264/.305/.438, 91 wRC+). IF/OF Orlando Calixte
Outrighted November 27 2017
Calixte stuck on with the Giants, being invited to their Spring Training game and spending the season in Sacramento, hitting .270/.323/.405 (90 wRC+) in the 125 games he played. Edit: Looks like Calixte has signed a minor league deal with the Mariners RHP Albert Suarez
Filed for free agency December 1
Suarez was technically rule 5'd by the Diamondbacks, although he failed to make their roster after 6 games (2 starts) which saw him post a 6.57 ERA. In 31 games (4 starts) for the Reno Aces, he had a 4.97 ERA. LHP Matt Moore
Traded December 15 2017 to the Rangers
While at first picking up Moore's option for 2018 seemed like a weird move, given that the Giants were set to be up against the tax, it actually worked out, as Evans was able to move Moore and his entire salary, saving money over just declining the option because the Giants would've had to pay a buyout. Moore was even worse in Texas than he was in 2017 - he only got 12 starts with the Rangers, but had a 8.02 ERA in those 12 starts, and his 5.36 ERA out of the pen is uninspiring. Moore ended up being a bad Giant and part of a bad trade as his stock has really fallen since his top prospect days. He might be lucky to get a camp invite that gives him a good shot of making a big league team. LHP Matt Krook
Traded December 20 2017 to Tampa Bay in the Longoria trade
Krook made 39 appearances (6 starts) for the Rays AA team, walking 50 in 74 IP and getting a 4.26 ERA. He was more of a throw-in for this trade. RHP Stephen Woods
Traded December 20 2017 to Tampa Bay in the Longoria trade
Woods spent the entire 2018 season on the DL. The Giants 2018 8th round pick had himself a nice 2017 with the Giants, pitching to a 2.95 ERA in full-season ball. IF Christian Arroyo
Traded December 20 2017 to Tampa Bay in the Longoria trade
Arroyo managed to be a league average hitter in 2018 after being terrible during his 2017 callup, hitting .264/.339/.396 (106 wRC+), albeit it in 20 games. His AAA numbers, however, are cause for concern - he hit just .235/.286/.341 (75 wRC+) - and reflect what seems to be a thinking among some evaluators that he might not be as good as previously thought. OF Denard Span
Traded December 20 2017 to Tampa Bay in the Longoria trade
To make an already bad trade look worse, Span was a significantly better hitter in 2018 than Longoria was (112 wRC+ vs. 85). The glove and arm still aren't great, but I'd guess Span still has a year or two left as a quality full-time LF, and could be a good platoon player for a few more years. RHP Kyle Crick
Traded January 15 to Pittsburgh in the McCutchen trade
Despite starting the season in the minors, Crick had a tremendous year for the Pirates out of the pen, with a 2.39 ERA in 64 games. The walks were still a bit higher than you'd like (23 BB in 60.1 IP), and he had that one inning against the Giants were he lost control and had Giants yelling at him, but I'd predict that he's a quality reliever for years to come. OF Bryan Reynolds
Traded January 15 to Pittsburgh in the McCutchen trade
From reading Keith Law, it sounds like he doesn't think Reynolds will field well enough to stay in CF. The question then becomes whether he will hit well enough to play in a corner - he did his part in 2018, hitting .302/.381/.438 (128 wRC+), missing a month and a half on the DL. INF Engelb Vielma
DFA'd January 23
The Giants claimed and traded for Engelb Vielma multiple times last offseason, finally losing him here permanently. They'd eventually trade him to the Orioles, where he made it into 6 games for the Orioles. He didn't hit in 12 games in AAA (.184/.256/.289) before losing his season to a knee injury in May. That's the scout on him - great glove, no bat. RHP Joan Gregorio
DFA'd February 19
Gregorio stayed on with the Giants, really struggling in 4 games in AAA before getting injured in April. He would make one rehab appearance in August, but he must've been shut down after that before that was his sole rehab appearance. OF Jarrett Parker
Released March 26
Parker failed to make the Giants out of Spring Training. As of August, he was rehabbing in Arizona under the Giants care because he still hadn't recovered from his clavicle fracture
. LHP DJ Snelten
DFA'd May 28
Snelten managed to break into the bigs with the Giants this year, pitching in a couple games, before getting DFA'd and traded to the Orioles. They ended up outrighting him to AAA, where he had a 5.52 ERA in 22 games. RHP Jose Valdez
DFA'd June 1
After his DFA, Valdez returned to Sacramento. He had a 4.93 ERA in 37 games for Sacramento, notably walking 35 in 49.1 IP. RHP Roberto Gomez
Released July 5
The most notable thing Gomez did as a Giant was probably being the winning pitcher of the McCutchen game. Gomez signed a minor league deal with the Giants after his release, and he made it into 10 games with the River Cats, ending his minor league season with a 5 ERA. RHP Jason Bahr
Traded July 8 to the Rangers in the Gearrin/Jackson salary dump
The Giants had to trade Bahr, a decent prospect, to the Rangers to unload Gearrin and Jackson's salaries. In hindsight, the Giants probably wish they hadn't done it, because they would've got under the luxury tax anyways trading Andrew McCutchen. Bahr, however, had a 5.8 ERA in 8 games in high-A for the Rangers. RHP Cory Gearrin
Traded July 8 to the Rangers
Cory Gearrin somehow had a 1.99 ERA in 2017. After getting traded, he pitched fairly well for the Rangers, posting a 2.53 ERA in 21 games. He then got traded to the A's, where he was terrible, giving up 4 runs in 6 innings and becoming irrelevant in September. I'd expect him to get non-tendered. OF Austin Jackson
Traded July 8 to the Rangers
Jackson never suited up for the Rangers, who immediately released him. He caught on with the Mets, and although he started out hitting well, he ended up with a pretty bad hitting line (.247/.290/.348, 79 wRC+) and shouldn't get a major league deal in free agency. Apparently, he thought the beat writers were too negativ
e about the 62 wRC+ he posted with the Giants, which is hard to believe. OF Andrew McCutchen
Traded August 31 to the Yankees
McCutchen hit .253/.421/.471 (149 wRC+) with the Yankees, really finishing his season well. However, because he had a few cold playoff games, Aaron Boone benched him in a playoff game for Brett Gardner. McCutchen is still a quality corner OF and should have many teams interested in him in free agency. (former) Major leaguers retired before 2018:
• RHP Brett Bochy
(he helped celebrate the opening of a park in Del Sur in August
• 1B/OF Travis Ishikawa
(Worked as hitting coach for a Giants AZL team)
• INF Marco Scutaro
• OF Gary Brown
(looks like he's trying to become an executive)
• INF Joaquin Arias
• OF Justin Maxwell
(Coaching some youth baseball and going to the University of Maryland School of Dentistry
• INF Kevin Frandsen
(announced some games on the radio for the Phillies, has a spot on KNBR)
• RHP Ryan Vogelsong
(occasionally helping out with the Giants, I think did some studio work for the Giants as well)
• LHP Jeremy Affeldt
(Giants color commentatoanalyst)
• RHP Tim Hudson
(guest instructor in Braves camp)
• OF Marlon Byrd
(was running a fitness studio as of June 2018
• RHP Jake Peavy
(despite rumors he'd attempt a comeback once his kids graduated in June, they never came to be. He's now selling his properties both in Alabama
and San Diego
• OF Angel Pagan
(sat out 2017 but there were never even rumors about him signing in 2018)
• RHP Joe Nathan
(inducted to New York State Baseball Hall of Fame
• LHP Javier Lopez
(still doing announcing/studio work for the Giants)
• OF Justin Ruggiano
(Coaching at some place called Line Drive. Retired is assumed. )
• RHP Bryan Morris
(Pitching coach for his high school)
• RHP Matt Cain
(inducted to Wall of Fame, sold two houses to buy one big one
• 1B/LF Michael Morse
(living comfortably after his concussion, doing a lot of fishing, did some TV work for the Nationals)
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An Introduction to Libra White Paper • From the Libra Association Members Libra’s mission is to enable a simple global currency and financial infrastructure that empowers billions of people. This document outlines our plans for a new decentralized blockchain, a low-volatility cryptocurrency, and a smart contract platform that together aim to create a new opportunity for responsible financial services innovation. Problem Statement The advent of the internet and mobile broadband has empowered billions of people globally to have access to the world’s knowledge and information, high-fidelity communications, and a wide range of lower-cost, more convenient services. These services are now accessible using a $40 smartphone from almost anywhere in the world.1 This connectivity has driven economic empowerment by enabling more people to access the financial ecosystem. Working together, technology companies and financial institutions have also found solutions to help increase economic empowerment around the world. Despite this progress, large swaths of the world’s population are still left behind — 1.7 billion adults globally remain outside of the financial system with no access to a traditional bank, even though one billion have a mobile phone and nearly half a billion have internet access.2 For too many, parts of the financial system look like telecommunication networks pre-internet. Twenty years ago, the average price to send a text message in Europe was 16 cents per message.3 Now everyone with a smartphone can communicate across the world for free with a basic data plan. Back then, telecommunications prices were high but uniform, whereas today, access to financial services is limited or restricted for those who need it most — those impacted by cost, reliability, and the ability to seamlessly send money. All over the world, people with less money pay more for financial services. Hard-earned income is eroded by fees, from remittances and wire costs to overdraft and ATM charges. Payday loans can charge annualized interest rates of 400 percent or more, and finance charges can be as high as $30 just to borrow $100.4 When people are asked why they remain on the fringe of the existing financial system, those who remain “unbanked” point to not having sufficient funds, high and unpredictable fees, banks being too far away, and lacking the necessary documentation.5 Blockchains and cryptocurrencies have a number of unique properties that can potentially address some of the problems of accessibility and trustworthiness. These include distributed governance, which ensures that no single entity controls the network; open access, which allows anybody with an internet connection to participate; and security through cryptography, which protects the integrity of funds. Revised July 23rd, 2019 1 / 12
But the existing blockchain systems have yet to reach mainstream adoption. Mass-market usage of existing blockchains and cryptocurrencies has been hindered by their volatility and lack of scalability, which have, so far, made them poor stores of value and mediums of exchange. Some projects have also aimed to disrupt the existing system and bypass regulation as opposed to innovating on compliance and regulatory fronts to improve the effectiveness of anti-money laundering. We believe that collaborating and innovating with the financial sector, including regulators and experts across a variety of industries, is the only way to ensure that a sustainable, secure, and trusted framework underpins this new system. And this approach can deliver a giant leap forward toward a lower-cost, more accessible, and more connected global financial system. The Opportunity As we embark on this journey together, we think it is important to share our beliefs to align the community and ecosystem we intend to spark around this initiative: • We believe that many more people should have access to financial services and to cheap capital. • We believe that people have an inherent right to control the fruit of their legal labor. • We believe that global, open, instant, and low-cost movement of money will create immense economic opportunity and more commerce across the world. • We believe that people will increasingly trust decentralized forms of governance. • We believe that a global currency and financial infrastructure should be designed and governed as a public good. • We believe that we all have a responsibility to help advance financial inclusion, support ethical actors, and continuously uphold the integrity of the ecosystem. 2 / 12
Introducing Libra The world truly needs a reliable digital currency and infrastructure that together can deliver on the promise of “the internet of money.” Securing your financial assets on your mobile device should be simple and intuitive. Moving money around globally should be as easy and cost-effective as — and even more safe and secure than — sending a text message or sharing a photo, no matter where you live, what you do, or how much you earn. New product innovation and additional entrants to the ecosystem will enable the lowering of barriers to access and cost of capital for everyone and facilitate frictionless payments for more people. Now is the time to create a new kind of digital currency built on the foundation of blockchain technology. The mission for Libra is a simple global currency and financial infrastructure that empowers billions of people. Libra is made up of three parts that will work together to create a more inclusive financial system: 1. It is built on a secure, scalable, and reliable blockchain; 2. It is backed by a reserve of assets designed to give it intrinsic value; 3. It is governed by the independent Libra Association tasked with evolving the ecosystem. The Libra currency is built on the “Libra Blockchain.” Because it is intended to address a global audience, the software that implements the Libra Blockchain is open source — designed so that anyone can build on it, and billions of people can depend on it for their financial needs. Imagine an open, interoperable ecosystem of financial services that developers and organizations will build to help people and businesses hold and transfer Libra for everyday use. With the proliferation of smartphones and wireless data, increasingly more people will be online and able to access Libra through these new services. To enable the Libra ecosystem to achieve this vision over time, the blockchain has been built from the ground up to prioritize scalability, security, efficiency in storage and throughput, and future adaptability. Keep reading for an overview of the Libra Blockchain, or read the technical paper. The unit of currency is called “Libra.” Libra will need to be accepted in many places and easy to access for those who want to use it. In other words, people need to have confidence that they can use Libra and that its value will remain relatively stable over time. Unlike the majority of cryptocurrencies, Libra is fully backed by a reserve of real assets. A basket of bank deposits and short-term government securities will be held in the Libra Reserve for every Libra that is created, building trust in its intrinsic value. The Libra Reserve will be administered with the objective of preserving the value of Libra over time. Keep reading for an overview of Libra and the reserve, or read more here. The Libra Association is an independent, not-for-profit membership organization headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The association’s purpose is to coordinate and provide a framework for governance for the 3 / 12
network and reserve and lead social impact grant-making in support of financial inclusion. This white paper is a reflection of its mission, vision, and purview. The association’s membership is formed from the network of validator nodes that operate the Libra Blockchain. Members of the Libra Association will consist of geographically distributed and diverse businesses, nonprofit and multilateral organizations, and academic institutions. The initial group of organizations that will work together on finalizing the association’s charter and become “Founding Members” upon its completion are, by industry: • Payments: Mastercard, Mercado Pago, PayPal, PayU (Naspers’ fintech arm), Stripe, Visa • Technology and marketplaces: Booking Holdings, eBay, Facebook/Calibra, Farfetch, Lyft, Spotify AB, Uber Technologies, Inc. • Telecommunications: Iliad, Vodafone Group • Blockchain: Anchorage, Bison Trails, Coinbase, Inc., Xapo Holdings Limited • Venture Capital: Andreessen Horowitz, Breakthrough Initiatives, Ribbit Capital, Thrive Capital, Union Square Ventures • Nonprofit and multilateral organizations, and academic institutions: Creative Destruction Lab, Kiva, Mercy Corps, Women’s World Banking We hope to have approximately 100 members of the Libra Association by the target launch in the first half of 2020. Facebook teams played a key role in the creation of the Libra Association and the Libra Blockchain, working with the other Founding Members. While final decision-making authority rests with the association, Facebook is expected to maintain a leadership role through 2019. Facebook created Calibra, a regulated subsidiary, to ensure separation between social and financial data and to build and operate services on its behalf on top of the Libra network. Once the Libra network launches, Facebook, and its affiliates, will have the same commitments, privileges, and financial obligations as any other Founding Member. As one member among many, Facebook’s role in governance of the association will be equal to that of its peers. Blockchains are described as either permissioned or permissionless in relation to the ability to participate as a validator node. In a “permissioned blockchain,” access is granted to run a validator node. In a “permissionless blockchain,” anyone who meets the technical requirements can run a validator node. In that sense, Libra will start as a permissioned blockchain. To ensure that Libra is truly open and always operates in the best interest of its users, our ambition is for the Libra network to become permissionless. The challenge is that as of today we do not believe that there is a proven solution that can deliver the scale, stability, and security needed to support billions of people and transactions across the globe through a permissionless network. One of the association’s directives will be to work with the community to research and implement this transition, which will begin within five years of the public launch of the Libra Blockchain and ecosystem. Essential to the spirit of Libra, in both its permissioned and permissionless state, the Libra Blockchain will be open to everyone: any consumer, developer, or business can use the Libra network, build products on top of it, and add value through their services. Open access ensures low barriers to entry and innovation and encourages healthy competition that benefits consumers. This is foundational to the goal of building more inclusive financial options for the world. 4 / 12
The Libra Blockchain The goal of the Libra Blockchain is to serve as a solid foundation for financial services, including a new global currency, which could meet the daily financial needs of billions of people. Through the process of evaluating existing options, we decided to build a new blockchain based on these three requirements: • Able to scale to billions of accounts, which requires high transaction throughput, low latency, and an efficient, high-capacity storage system. • Highly secure, to ensure safety of funds and financial data. • Flexible, so it can power the Libra ecosystem’s governance as well as future innovation in financial services. The Libra Blockchain is designed from the ground up to holistically address these requirements and build on the learnings from existing projects and research — a combination of innovative approaches and well- understood techniques. This next section will highlight three decisions regarding the Libra Blockchain: 1. Designing and using the Move programming language. 2. Using a Byzantine Fault Tolerant (BFT) consensus approach. 3. Adopting and iterating on widely adopted blockchain data structures. “Move” is a new programming language for implementing custom transaction logic and “smart contracts” on the Libra Blockchain. Because of Libra’s goal to one day serve billions of people, Move is designed with safety and security as the highest priorities. Move takes insights from security incidents that have happened with smart contracts to date and creates a language that makes it inherently easier to write code that fulfills the author’s intent, thereby lessening the risk of unintended bugs or security incidents. Specifically, Move is designed to prevent assets from being cloned. It enables “resource types” that constrain digital assets to the same properties as physical assets: a resource has a single owner, it can only be spent once, and the creation of new resources is restricted. The Move language also facilitates automatic proofs that transactions satisfy certain properties, such as payment transactions only changing the account balances of the payer and receiver. By prioritizing these features, Move will help keep the Libra Blockchain secure. By making the development of critical transaction code easier, Move enables the secure implementation of the Libra ecosystem’s governance policies, such as the management of the Libra currency and the network of validator nodes. Move will accelerate the evolution of the Libra Blockchain protocol and any financial innovations built on top of it. We anticipate that the ability for developers to create contracts will be opened up over time in order to support the evolution and validation of Move. To facilitate agreement among all validator nodes on the transactions to be executed and the order in which they are executed, the Libra Blockchain adopted the BFT approach by using the LibraBFT consensus protocol. This approach builds trust in the network because BFT consensus protocols are designed to function correctly even if some validator nodes — up to one-third of the network — are compromised or fail. This class 5 / 12
of consensus protocols also enables high transaction throughput, low latency, and a more energy-efficient approach to consensus than “proof of work” used in some other blockchains. In order to securely store transactions, data on the Libra Blockchain is protected by Merkle trees, a data structure used by other blockchains that enables the detection of any changes to existing data. Unlike previous blockchains, which view the blockchain as a collection of blocks of transactions, the Libra Blockchain is a single data structure that records the history of transactions and states over time. This implementation simplifies the work of applications accessing the blockchain, allowing them to read any data from any point in time and verify the integrity of that data using a unified framework. The Libra Blockchain is pseudonymous and allows users to hold one or more addresses that are not linked to their real-world identity. This approach is familiar to many users, developers, and regulators. The Libra Association will oversee the evolution of the Libra Blockchain protocol and network, and it will continue to evaluate new techniques that enhance privacy in the blockchain while considering concerns of practicality, scalability, and regulatory impact. For more details, read the technical paper on the Libra Blockchain. Detailed information is also available on the Move programming language and the LibraBFT consensus protocol. We’ve open sourced an early preview of the Libra testnet, with accompanying documentation. The testnet is still under development, and APIs are subject to change. Our commitment is to work in the open with the community and hope you will read, build, and provide feedback. 6 / 12
The Libra Currency and Reserve
We believe that the world needs a global, digitally native currency that brings together the attributes of the world’s best currencies: stability, low inflation, wide global acceptance, and fungibility. The Libra currency is designed to help with these global needs, aiming to expand how money works for more people around the world. Libra is designed to be a stable digital cryptocurrency that will be fully backed by a reserve of real assets — the Libra Reserve — and supported by a competitive network of exchanges buying and selling Libra. That means anyone with Libra has a high degree of assurance they can convert their digital currency into local fiat currency based on an exchange rate, just like exchanging one currency for another when traveling. This approach is similar to how other currencies were introduced in the past: to help instill trust in a new currency and gain widespread adoption during its infancy, it was guaranteed that a country’s notes could be traded in for real assets, such as gold. Instead of backing Libra with gold, though, it will be backed by a collection of low-volatility assets, such as bank deposits and short-term government securities in currencies from stable and reputable central banks. It is important to highlight that this means one Libra will not always be able to convert into the same amount of a given local currency (i.e., Libra is not a “peg” to a single currency). Rather, as the value of the underlying assets moves, the value of one Libra in any local currency may fluctuate. However, the reserve assets are being chosen to minimize volatility, so holders of Libra can trust the currency’s ability to preserve value over time. The assets in the Libra Reserve will be held by a geographically distributed network of custodians with investment-grade credit rating to provide both security and decentralization of the assets. The assets behind Libra are the major difference between it and many existing cryptocurrencies that lack such intrinsic value and hence have prices that fluctuate significantly based on expectations. Libra is indeed a cryptocurrency, though, and by virtue of that, it inherits several attractive properties of these new digital currencies: the ability to send money quickly, the security of cryptography, and the freedom to easily transmit funds across borders. Just as people can use their phones to message friends anywhere in the world today, with Libra, the same can be done with money — instantly, securely, and at low cost. Interest on the reserve assets will be used to cover the costs of the system, ensure low transaction fees, and support further growth and adoption. The rules for allocating interest on the reserve will be set in advance and will be overseen by the Libra Association. Users of Libra do not receive a return from the reserve. For more on the reserve policy and the details of the Libra currency, please read here. 7 / 12
The Libra Association To make the mission of Libra a reality — a simple global currency and financial infrastructure that empowers billions of people — the Libra Blockchain and Libra Reserve need a governing entity that is comprised of diverse and independent members. This governing entity is the Libra Association, an independent, not-for-profit membership organization, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. Switzerland has a history of global neutrality and openness to blockchain technology, and the association strives to be a neutral, international institution, hence the choice to be registered there. The association is designed to facilitate the operation of the Libra Blockchain; to coordinate the agreement among its stakeholders — the network’s validator nodes — in their pursuit to promote, develop, and expand the network, and to manage the reserve. The association is governed by the Libra Association Council, which is comprised of one representative per validator node. Together, they make decisions on the governance of the network and reserve. Initially, this group consists of the Founding Members: businesses, nonprofit and multilateral organizations, and academic institutions from around the world. All decisions are brought to the council, and major policy or technical decisions require the consent of two-thirds of the votes, the same supermajority of the network required in the BFT consensus protocol. Through the association, the validator nodes align on the network’s technical roadmap and development goals. In that sense, it is similar to other not-for-profit entities, often in the form of foundations, which govern open-source projects. As Libra relies on a growing distributed community of open-source contributors to further itself, the association is a necessary vehicle to establish guidance as to which protocols or specifications to develop and to adopt. The Libra Association also serves as the entity through which the Libra Reserve is managed, and hence the stability and growth of the Libra economy are achieved. The association is the only party able to create (mint) and destroy (burn) Libra. Coins are only minted when authorized resellers have purchased those coins from the association with fiat assets to fully back the new coins. Coins are only burned when the authorized resellers sell Libra coin to the association in exchange for the underlying assets. Since authorized resellers will always be able to sell Libra coins to the reserve at a price equal to the value of the basket, the Libra Reserve acts as a “buyer of last resort.” These activities of the association are governed and constrained by a Reserve Management Policy that can only be changed by a supermajority of the association members. In these early years of the network, there are additional roles that need to be performed on behalf of the association: the recruitment of Founding Members to serve as validator nodes; the design and implementation of incentive programs to propel the adoption of Libra, including the distribution of such incentives to Founding Members; and the establishment of the association’s social impact grant-making program. An additional goal of the association is to develop and promote an open identity standard. We believe that decentralized and portable digital identity is a prerequisite to financial inclusion and competition. 8 / 12
An important objective of the Libra Association is to move toward increasing decentralization over time. This decentralization ensures that there are low barriers to entry for both building on and using the network and improves the Libra ecosystem’s resilience over the long term. As discussed above, the association will develop a path toward permissionless governance and consensus on the Libra network. The association’s objective will be to start this transition within five years, and in so doing will gradually reduce the reliance on the Founding Members. In the same spirit, the association aspires to minimize the reliance on itself as the administrator of the Libra Reserve. For more on the Libra Association, please read here. 9 / 12
What’s Next for Libra? Today we are publishing this document outlining our goals for Libra and launching libra.org as a home for the association and all things Libra. It will continue to be updated over the coming months. We are also open- sourcing the code for the Libra Blockchain and launching Libra’s initial testnet for developers to experiment with and build upon. There is much left to do before the target launch in the first half of 2020. • The Libra Blockchain: Over the coming months, the association will work with the community to gather feedback on the Libra Blockchain prototype and bring it to a production-ready state. In particular, this work will focus on ensuring the security, performance, and scalability of the protocol and implementation. ◦ TheLibraAssociationwillconstructwell-documentedAPIsandlibrariestoenableuserstointeract ◦ with the Libra Blockchain. The Libra Association will create a framework for the collaborative development of the technology behind the Libra Blockchain using the open-source methodology. Procedures will be created for ◦ discussing and reviewing changes to the protocol and software that support the blockchain. The association will perform extensive testing of the blockchain, which range from tests of the protocol to constructing a full-scale test of the network in collaboration with entities such as wallet ◦ services and exchanges to ensure the system is working before launch. The association will work to foster the development of the Move language and determine a path for third parties to create smart contracts once language development has stabilized — after the launch of the Libra ecosystem. Together with the community, the association will research the technological challenges on the path to a permissionless ecosystem so that we can meet the objective to begin the transition within five years of the launch. • The Reserve: ◦ The association will work to establish a geographically distributed and regulated group of global ◦ institutional custodians for the reserve. The association will establish operational procedures for the reserve to interact with authorized ◦ resellers and ensure high-transparency and auditability. The association will establish policies and procedures that establish how the association can change the composition of the reserve basket. 10 / 12
• The Libra Association: ◦ We will work to grow the Libra Association Council to around 100 geographically distributed and ◦ diverse members, all serving as the initial validator nodes of the Libra Blockchain. The association will develop and adopt a comprehensive charter and set of bylaws for the ◦ association on the basis of the currently proposed governance structure. We will recruit a Managing Director for the association and work with hehim to continue hiring ◦ for the association’s executive team. We will identify social impact partners aligned with our joint mission and will work with them to establish a Social Impact Advisory Board and a social impact program. How to Get Involved The association envisions a vibrant ecosystem of developers building apps and services to spur the global use of Libra. The association defines success as enabling any person or business globally to have fair, affordable, and instant access to their money. For example, success will mean that a person working abroad has a fast and simple way to send money to family back home, and a college student can pay their rent as easily as they can buy a coffee. Our journey is just beginning, and we are asking the community to help. If you believe in what Libra could do for billions of people around the world, share your perspective and join in. Your feedback is needed to make financial inclusion a reality for people everywhere. ● If you are a researcher or protocol developer, an early preview of the Libra testnet is available under the Apache 2.0 Open Source License, with accompanying documentation. This is just the start of the process, and the testnet is still an early prototype under development, but you can read, build, and provide feedback right away. Since the current focus is on stabilizing the prototype, the project may initially be slower to take community contributions. However, we are committed to building a community-oriented development process and opening the platform to developers — starting with pull requests — as soon as possible. ● If you want to learn about the Libra Association, read more here. ● If your organization is interested in becoming a Founding Member or applying for social impact grants from the Libra Association, read more here. The association will work with the global community in the coming months and continue to partner with policymakers worldwide to further the mission. 11 / 12
This is the goal for Libra: A stable currency built on a secure and stable open-source blockchain, backed by a reserve of real assets, and governed by an independent association. Our hope is to create more access to better, cheaper, and open financial services — no matter who you are, where you live, what you do, or how much you have. We recognize that the road to delivering this will be long, arduous, and won’t be achieved in isolation — it will take coming together and forming a real movement around this pursuit. We hope you’ll join us and help turn this dream into a reality for billions of people around the world. 1 Best Buy. “AT&T prepaid Alcatel CAMEOX device purchase.” Bestbuy.com. Available: https://www.bestbuy.com/site/at-t-prepaid-alcatel-cameox-4g-lte-with-
16gb-memory-cell-phone-arctic-white/6008102.p?skuId=6008102 (Accessed: May 15, 2019). 2 A. Demirgüç-Kunt, L. Klapper, D. Singer, S. Ansar, and J. Hess. The Global Findex database 2017: Measuring financial inclusion and the fintech revolution. World Bank Group, 2018. Accessed: May 15 2019. Globalfindex.worldbank.org. [Online]. Available: https://globalfindex.worldbank.org/sites/globalfindex/
files/2018-04/2017%20Findex%20full%20report_0.pdf 3 OECD. Mobile phones: Pricing structures and trends. Paris, France: OECD Publishing, 2000, p. 67. [Online]. Available: https://books.google.com/books?id=p-
cP84M_GBeoC&pg=PA6&lpg=PA6&dq=1999+price+SMS+europe&source=bl&ots=TIbwgZWCmj&sig=ACfU3U2Z_yRawxW78qVSVO_wHCtRupoqoA&hl=en&sa=X- &ved=2ahUKEwjOmeG9tMHiAhVVFzQIHU8eBEMQ6AEwD3oECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=SMS&f=false 4 Consumer Federation of America. “How payday loans work.” Payday Loan Consumer Information. Available: https://paydayloaninfo.org/facts
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