24Option Review - How to Succeed with Binary Options

List of New Supported Games and FAQ.

Hey guys! Here is a list of all the new supported games, you can download the Nucleus Co-Op scripts from the app now, the games listed here that are clickable link you to a guide but all are supported. You can also see all available scripts from the app now by pressing the view all option.
10 Miles to Safety
100% Orange Juice
200% Mixed Juice!
Abyssal Zone
Acceleration of SUGURI 2
A Hat in Time
Air Missions: HIND
Alien Breed Impact
Alien Breed 2: Assault
Alien Breed 3: Descent
Aliens Colonial Marines
Aliens vs Predator
Alien Swarm: Reactive Drop
Aragami: Shadow Edition
ARK: Survival Evolved
Ashen (steam version only)
Attack on Titan 2
ATV Drift & Tricks
Binary Domain
BioShock 2
Bit Dungeon III
Blades of Time
Bladestorm: Nightmare
Blood and Bacon
Bob Was Hungry
Borderlands 2
Borderlands: The Pre-Sequel
Borderlands GOTY Enhanced
Borderlands 3
Broomstick League
Bulletstorm: Full Clip Edition
Bunch of Heroes
CastleMiner Z
Cladun Returns: This is Segoku
Chivalry: Medieval Warfare
Citadel: Forged With Fire
Code of Princess
Conan Exiles (16 june 2020 update added Funcom Live Services and now the game is online only effectively breaking the splitscreen script. You need to downgrade to the previous version.)
Contra: Rogue Corps
Counter-Strike: Source
Cube World
Cyberdimension Neptunia: 4 Goddesses Online
Daemon X Machina
Dark Souls: Prepare to Die Edition
Day of Defeat: Source
Day of Infamy
Deadfall Adventures
Dead Island
Dead Island: DE
Dead Island Riptide: DE
Dead Rising 2
Dead Rising 2: Off the Record
Dead Rising 3
Dead Rising 4
Deep Rock Galactic
Dinosaur Hunt
Divinity: Dragon Commander
Divinity: Original Sin Enhanced Edition
Divinity: Original Sin 2
Don't Starve Together
Door Kickers
Dragon Ball Xenoverse
Dragon Ball: Xenoverse 2
Dragon Marked for Death
Dragon Quest Builders 2
Dungeon of the Endless
Dungeons 3
Dungeon Siege III
Dying Light
Earth Defense Force 4.1
Earth Defense Force 5
Earth Defense Force: Insect Armageddon
Earth Defense Force: Iron Rain
Enemy Front
F1 2012
Fade to Silence
Fallout 76
F.E.A.R. 3
Final Exam
Feel The Snow
Fight The Dragon
Fistful of Frags
Forge Quest
Front Mission Evolved
Full Mojo Rampage
Garry's Mod
Gas Guzzlers Extreme
Generation Zero
God Eater Resurrection
God Eater 2 - Rage Burst
God Eater 3
God Mode
Grim Dawn
Ground Branch
Guns n Zombies
Half-Life Deathmatch: Source
Half-Life 2: Deathmatch
Half-Minute Hero: The Second
Halo Custom Edition
Halo 2 LAN
Halo 2: Project Cartographer
Halo Online ElDewrito
Halo: The Master Chief Collection
Halo Wars: Definitive Edition
Hero Siege
Hunted: The Demon’s Forge
Human: Fall Flat
I am Weapon: Revival
Iron Brigade
It came from space, and ate our brains
KATANA KAMI: A Way of the Samurai Story
Killing Floor
Killing Floor 2
Kill to Collect
Lead and Gold: Gangs of the Wild West
Left 4 Dead 2
LEGO Worlds
Lord of the Rings War in the North
Mean Greens - Plastic Warfare
Mighty No. 9
Minecraft Java Edition
Monday Night Combat
Morphies Law
Need For Speed Most Wanted 2005
Nioh: Complete Edition
No Man's Sky
No More Room in Hell
Outbreak: TNN
Orcs Must Die! 2
ORION: Prelude
OVERKILL's The Walking Dead
PAYDAY: The Heist
Pirates, Vikings, and Knights II
Portal Knights
Prevent The Fall
Primal Carnage: Extinction
Remnant: From the Ashes
Resident Evil 5
Resident Evil 6
Resident Evil Revelations
Re-Volt (RVGL)
Risk of Rain 2
Ryse: Son of Rome
Sacred 3
Saints Row The Third
Saints Row IV
Saints Row: Gat out of Hell
Sanctum 2
Scourge Outbreak
Secrets of Grindea
Senran Kagura: Shinovi Versus
Senran Kagura: Estival Versus
Senran Kagura: Peach Beach Splash
Serious Sam 2
Seven Days to Die
Sir, You Are Being Hunted
Sniper Elite 3
Space Engineers
Space Hulk: Deathwing - Enhanced Edition
Spec Ops: The Line
Stardew Valley
Star Wars: Battlefront 2 (Classic, 2005)
Strange Brigade
Strength of the Sword: ULTIMATE
Styx: Shards of Darkness
Super Mario 64
Sven Coop
Sword Art Online Re: Hollow Fragment
Sword Art Online: Lost Song
Sword Art Online: Hollow Realization Deluxe Edition
SYNTHETIK: Legion Rising
Takedown: Red Sabre
Team Fortress 2
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Mutants in Manhattan
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Out of the Shadows
The Blackout Club
The Darkness 2
The Forest
The Haunted: Hells Reach
theHunter: Call of the Wild
The Incredible Adventures of Van Helsing
The Incredible Adventures of Van Helsing II
The Incredible Adventures of Van Helsing III
The Incredible Adventures of Van Helsing Final Cut
The Mean Greens - Plastic Warfare
The Simple Apocalypse
The Watchers
Tokyo Ghoul:re Call to Exist
Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six: Vegas 2
Tomb Raider
Torchlight II
Toukiden: Kiwami
Toukiden 2
Unending Dusk
Unreal Tournament III
Umbrella Corps
Warcraft III: The Frozen Throne
Warcraft III: Reign of Chaos
Warhammer 40,000: Space Marine
We Were Here Together
White Noise 2
World in Conflict: Complete Edition
XCOM: Enemy Within
Zeno Clash II
Zombie Army Trilogy
Zombie Panic! Source

Frequently Asked Questions & Troubleshooting

(Under Construction, last updated: 06/06/20)
Q: What is Nucleus Co-Op?
A: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jbituCgu3Bc
Nucleus Co-Op is a free and open source tool for Windows that allows split-screen play on many games that do not initially support it. The app was originally created by Lucas Assis, Zerofox later took over and added a ton of new features and improvements to support a lot more games. Ilyaki later joined in and brought multiple keyboards/mice support and more great features to the table. The app is currently being developed and updated by these devs: Lucas Assis, Zerofox and Ilyaki.
R-mach too for making and supporting the website that hosts the Nucleus Co-Op scripts.
Also the further development of the app wouldn't have been possible without all the amazing contributions and hard work from the SplitScreen Dreams Discord members (which include the devs mentioned above) that made all the new Nucleus Co-Op scripts and continue to make new discoveries and scripts to support even more games, among them: Talos91, PoundlandBacon, dr. old.boi, Pizzo and many more.
Q: How does Nucleus Co-Op work?
A: Essentially Nucleus Co-Op opens multiple instances of the same game (some games require mutex killing for that or other methods) that will only answer to one specific gamepad (we do this via Nucleus Co-Op custom xinput dlls or xinput plus dlls) and connects those instances via LAN or steamworks online multiplayer emulation (Goldberg Emulator), all while making sure all windows have focus so they can be playable with gamepads or that the instances are playable even in the background. Nucleus then resizes, removes borders and repositions the games windows so you can have synthetic splitscreen to play locally with your friends.
Q: Which games can be splitscreened using Nucleus Co-Op?
A: There are a lot of supported games, all mentioned in the list above. A ton of games are now supported thanks to the amazing program called Goldberg Emulator, developed by Mr. Goldberg, a big thank you to him. Read the Goldberg FAQ linked too if you want to know more.
Q: Where do I download Nucleus Co-Op?
A: You can download latest version from Github. Download the compiled .rar release, don't download the source code zip if you just want to use the app.
Q: How do I use Nucleus Co-Op?
A: Here is a quick video tutorial: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hWmvz59i-o0
1.- Download and exctract Nucleus Co-Op (extract using apps like 7-zip or winrar).
2.- Open NucleusCoop.exe.
3.- Click on Download Game Scripts, search for a game in the supported games list and download a script. You can also see all available scripts from the app now by pressing the view all option.
4.- Once the script has finished downloading you will get a prompt asking if you would like to add a game now, press yes if you want to add it now, if you select no proceed to step 6.
5.- Next you need to find where your game's executable is located. If you're not sure, try Googling 'where is (game) installed' and just searching for .exe in the place they tell you to look. For Steam games this is usually something along the lines of 'C:\Program Files\Steam\steamapps\common(game)'. Some games will have their real .exe stashed away in a folder called 'bin' or 'binaries' inside that place. Once you choose the right .exe, add the game.
6.- You can also automatically add games, click 'Auto-Search' and select the drive and path you want to add games from.
7.- Once your game is added, select it in the Nucleus UI and drag the gamepads icons to the splitscreen layout, click on the top-left icon on the layout corner to change the type of splitscreen layout. You can also right click a player in the layout to change the size.
8.- Finally press play and you are ready to go.
Q: Where should I place the Nucleus Co-Op folder?
A: Nucleus Co-Op can be placed almost anywhere(Documents, Downloads, Desktop, etc...) except inside the game files.
Q: How do I play with an uneven amount of players (such as 3 players) without having an empty space?
A: Right click on a section of the splitscreen layout
Q: Nucleus Co-Op doesn't launch, how do I fix it?
A: Here are a few things you can try:
1.- Try updating your Microsoft.net framework, and install/reinstall Visual C++ 2010-2017.
2.- Run Nucleus Co-Op as admin.
3.- Make sure your antivirus program is not blocking Nucleus Co-Op.
4.- Restart your PC, and try again.
Q: I wish to help out with the project, how can I get in touch?
A: Join the Nucleus Co-Op discord community or contact us here in the subreddit.
Q: When support for X game?
A: Not all games are easy to splitscreen, if you want to suggest a game make a post with the title [Request] Name of the game and provide useful information like if the game supports LAN or dedicated servers, if it is available on Steam or in other services, if it uses external servers for online etc. Also you can contact any of our experienced Nucleus scripters here or in the Nucleus Co-Op discord and ask if a script is possible. The main scripter is the OP of this post for instance. Remember that Scripters are limited by the games they own and can test on, so if you really want support for a game to be added consider donating the game to the scripter in question.
Q: How do I know when a script gets updated?
A: Scipt updates are always announced in the Nucleus Co-Op discord server in the channel script updates.
Q: How do I create my own splitscreen script for Nucleus Co-Op?
A: Here is the documentation, open the .js file with notepad to read it. You can also use the other scripts you download from Nucleus as reference, they get downloaded to the Nucleus scripts folder. If you create a working script or if you have any questions about Nucleus scripting you can ask us in the Nucleus Co-Op discord or here in the subreddit, we can help you improve your script so it is fully working for sharing with the community.
Q: Does Nucleus Co-Op work on Linux/Mac?
A: Nucleus Co-Op depends on a lot of Windows functions and APIs, at the moment it only works on Windows 7 and Up. If you are interested in porting Nucleus Co-Op to other operating systems please feel free to contact any of the developers.
Q: Where can I report a bug/issue?
A: Note that Nucleus Co-Op is a tool in development and still in Alpha. Expect bugs, glitches and weird things to happen. Help other people not have these things happen by checking for a solution here and submitting a [BUG REPORT] to the reddit as a new topic or in the comments here, if no-one else has brought it up.
A good [BUG REPORT] looks like this:
Thread name: [BUG REPORT] Simon falling off horse
BUG: Simon falls off his horse.
EXPECTED: Simon should not fall off his horse, right?
CAUSE: I'm pretty sure it's because I have my computer plugged into an auto-blow.
1.- Open up Simon Stays On His Horse: The Interactive Video Game of the Movie.
2.- Choose Co-Op and join with another player.
3.- Simon falls off his horse!!!
TYPE: Severe! The gameplay can't continue if Simon isn't on his horse! (Alternatively, Minor if the gameplay can continue but it's just annoying)
NUCLEUS OPTIONS: I played with 2 players using the vertical splitscreen (left and right) on one tv and 2 famicom controllers. I'm using the latest version
SYSTEM: I'm on Windows 3.1 with 4MB of RAM, a 2KHz CPU and no graphics card, playing on a projector. She's a monster.
I'd really like this to get fixed please thanks magic man! -Beanboy"
Keep in mind most scripts are made and tested using the latest legit steam versions of the game, so provide information about what version of the game you have.
Also provide a debug log of the NucleusCoop error, enable the debug log in Nucleus UI settings. You can also ask for support in our discord.
Q: Why is Nucleus Co-Op resizing the game instances incorrectly/the instances look stretched?
A: Try setting your monitor scale to 100% in your monitoTV resolution settings. It is also highly recommended that you add custom resolutions to all your monitors from your AMD/Nvidia/Intel panel (For example if you are using a monitor resolution of 1920x1080 add custom resolutions like 960x540, 1920x540, 960x1080, ect.) that way most games will be able to see and use those custom resolutions and the splitscreen will not look stretched(Example). Note that not all games support custom or widescreen resolutions. Also try disabling the Nucleus status bar in Nucleus UI settings.
Q: Why is Nucleus Co-Op throwing an error message that it can not find a file when launching a script?
A: A lot of scripts edit the game's .ini or .cfg files to force windowed and to adjust the game resolution, so make you sure you run your game at least once and change some graphic settings before running it via Nucleus Co-Op, that way you make sure the config files are getting generated first. If you are still getting the error after doing that, select the game in the UI, click on Game Options and select Delete UserProfile Config Path for all players. Also try disabling the Nucleus status bar in Nucleus UI settings.
Q: Where are my Nucleus Co-Op save files located?
A: Some scripts save to the Nucleus Co-Op enviroment folder located in C:\Users\YourUser\NucleusCoop, you can access each game save file via the Nucleus Co-Op UI too, select a game, click on Game Options and select Open UserProfile Save/Config Path. Other scripts just save in the same file path your regular game saves to.
Q: Why are my in-game frames per second low/better in one instance than in the others when using Nucleus Co-Op?
A: Remember that Nucleus Co-Op opens multiple instances of a game, so depending on the game this can be quite demanding for your PC, to improve FPS and performance try reducing graphics settings like textures and shadows, limit the FPS or unfocus all the game windows so that they get equal priority and the FPS even out, you can do this by Alt-Tabbing to a different window like the Nucleus app window, the game windows will still remain on top, you can also press the windows key+b in your keyboard to unfocus all instances.
Q: My Playstation/generic PC controller isn't working/isn't being detected by Nucleus Co-Op, how do I fix it?
A: Most Nucleus Co-Op Scripts only detect Xinput gamepads. Controllers that work best are Xbox 360, Xbox One and Logitech game controllers for minimum hassle. There are a few scripts that also support Direct Input gamepads but Xinput gamepads are generally easier to restrict to a specific game instance than Dinput gamepads.
If you are using PS4 gamepads try the app DS4windows, look in the settings for an option called "hide ds4 controller" - make sure it's ticked. To ensure it's definitely running in exclusive mode make sure ds4windows is set to load on windows startup, then turn your controllers on while windows is loading. Download the latest version here - https://ryochan7.github.io/ds4windows-site/
If you are using generic dinput gamepads the app XOutput is also useful to emulate xinput gamepads.
The app X360CE version 4 that creates virtual Xbox 360 Controllers inside your Windows operating system is also very useful to emulate xinput gamepads system wide.
Remember that some games detect both dinput and xinput gamepads so even if you are emulating a xinput gamepad the input could still not be restricted correctly because the game is now responding to both the emulated xinput gamepad and to the native direct input of your gamepad, that is why some apps like DS4windows have an "exclusive mode".
Also do not place x360ce xinput dlls in the Nucleus Co-Op files as this might interfere with Nucleus custom xinput dlls.
If you are using steam controllers try this: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wy4F2eqTXQ4
Q: Why is my keyboard not showing in the Nucleus Co-Op UI?
A: If a script is only showing gamepads and not keyboard icons that means the script only supports gamepads and doesn't support keyboards and mice in splitscreen yet.
Q: There are many keyboards and mice icons in the UI, how do I know which ones to use?
A: If you press a key in the keyboard you will use or move the mouse their corresponding icons in the Nucleus Co-Op UI will light up yellow. The app can detect keyboard macros that is why sometimes you will get multiple keyboard icons.
Q: Can you play splitscreen+LAN in different PCs?
A: Yes, if you run the game via Nucleus Co-Op in different PCs you can connect all instances you launch via LAN, for example you can have 2 players playing vertical splitscreen in one PC via Nucleus and connect to 2 others playing Nucleus splitscreen in a different PC via LAN. If the script uses steamworks multiplayer emulation you'll have to change the instances steam ids in the other PCs you'll connect to, otherwise the instances launched by Nucleus will use the same steam ids and won't be able to connect to each other. For that you can open the game script .js file in Nucleus scripts folder in the other PCs and add for example Game.PlayerSteamIDs = [ "76561198134585131","76561198131394153","76561198011792067","76561198043762785" ]; that will change the default ids of the first four instances you open in one PC via Nucleus Co-Op.
Q: Does Nucleus Co-Op have any malware?
A: Absolutely not.
Q: This project is Amazing where can I donate?
A: We don't have an unified donation platform yet but you can support the devs individually here: Zerofox, Ilyaki, Lucas Assis.
You can also donate to our main scripters that make the game scripts for Nucleus: Talos91/blackman9
submitted by blackman9 to nucleuscoop [link] [comments]

An Introduction to Git and GitHub

What Is Git?
Git is what is known as an open-source version control system which means that it records files over a period of time and these changes can be recalled at a later date. You can do a lot with Git whether it can be branching (creating something that is different from the master branch (the one you would most likely be working on)) or just committing to a repository (programming jargon simply calls it a repo).
What Is Git Article - A more in-depth article concerning Git (Do not be alarmed at the fact it uses BitBucket)

What Is GitHub?
While there are multiple different cloud-based version control systems on the web, GitHub remains to be one of the most popular and it is free too! It can be found here: GitHub

Basic Setup
Depending on what OS (operating system) you have the setup might be slightly different.
Linux (Will specifically be on a Debian system ie Ubuntu)
Go to your terminal and type these commands (keep in mind these will be using the root preference)
sudo apt update This will essentially update your system.
sudo apt install git This will install Git on the system.
git --version This is used to verify its downloaded.
Will also be in the terminal
ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Homebrew/install/masteinstall)"
brew doctor Will installs an application known as Homebrew which helps simplifies the installation of software on Mac systems.
brew install git Will install Git on your system
Navigate to Git-SCM: Git SCM Download
Git SCM will download protocol but also a BASH, a command line
(Sidenote: I would personally recommend learning the command line as it is a lot more powerful and if you understand the command line you would also understand the GUI. One GUI based version control systems is GitKraken)

Basic/ Most Used Bash Commands (Keep in mind there are several modifiers for each command)
ls - lists the folders and files in the working directory (the current directory you are in)
cd - changes directory
pwd- used to find the path for the current directory
mkdir- make a directory
touch - update the access and or modification date of a file or directory without opening, saving or closing the file.
cat - print files to stdout
mv - moves files and folders
cp - copies files or folders
rm - remove files and folder (look into modifiers for this one)
chmod - Change mode so you can set permissions for read, write and execute for the user, members of your group and others. (Binary can be used for this)
man - can be used to look up any commands ie man cd

Using GitBash/Terminal to Access GitHub
  1. Configure Git via git config --global user.name "[name]" and git config --global user.email "[email address]"
  2. Navigate to your working directory (Keep in mind you cannot just cd to the directory, you have to work your way to it, so I personally keep a folder called Programming in my home directory)
  3. Initialize a Git Repo via git init
Now, this is where you can branch-of, you have two options, pushing a new repo or pushing a preexistent repo.
Pushing a New Repo
  1. Commit your repo via git commit -m "first commit"
  2. Remote add your repo via git remote add origin
  3. Push to your repo via git push -u origin master
For Pushing an Existing Repo
  1. Remote add your repo via git remote add origin
  2. Push to your repo via git push -u origin master
Now that you have your repo set up, these are some helpful commands:
git status Used to check what has changed ie additions and deletions
git add Used to add files to commit if used with a period (.) it adds all of the files
git commit -m "message" Use to commit changed, but it is on the local system, the -m can be changed to things such as -u which is an update but it is recommended to keep with an -m
git push Used to push changes to GitHub
git reset Can be used after commit to reset the commits (Good if you accidentally add a file you did not want)
git pull Can be used to pull from any git repo, leave the URL out if your updating your current repo

The .gitignore file is useful for stopping certain files from committing automatically. It should automatically be in a repo when you create a project. To use it just cd to the directory where the file you want to exclude is and use pwd to find the directory pathing. Then copy the path into the file, it should look like a text file, and then add the name of the file you want to exclude.
Example: UseJun/Programming/src/something.java

Branching in Git (For advanced user)
Branching is useful when many people are working on the same project or when you have multiple versions of the same project. The major advantage of branching is when you want to add a feature without compromising the integrity of the master branch.
Branching Commands
git branch [branch-name] Used to create a new branch
git checkout [branch-name] Used to switch branches
git merge [branch] Used to merge branch commits (usually people use this with a branch and the master)
git branch -d [branch-name] Used to delete a branch

For more information consult the Git Documentation here. Feel free to message me.
submitted by chen_jun07 to learnprogramming [link] [comments]

| Getting started with BSPWM for beginners! [Polybar][Powerline][Picom][Pywal]

A while back I made a post on getting started with BSPWM (Binary Space Partition Window Manager) on this subreddit; I plan on deleting that and using this guide as the go-to for it. I was really all over the place, and at the time there wasn't really a lot of information on the tiling window manager so there were a lot of mistakes on it and things I could have done better. Now that I've grown more experienced throughout the years with Linux in general, I feel like I've perfected the art of ricing with BSPWM and Polybar together. And I'm here to show you how it's done.
A couple of comments before we begin, I'm going to assume you have experience with the following:
And I'm going to tell you that although you can replace your overall desktop environment with a tiling window manager, I'm really hoping that you have an open mind for keeping desktop environment in your system because tiling window managers tend to become more of a general struggle to deal with if you lack a solid background in Bash scripting. However, lucky for you in this tutorial I will not be using any bash scripting. The main idea here is a tiling window manager (aka Tiling WM) is not a desktop environment (aka DE), please research the difference between the two.
[Part 1: Installing BSPWM and Polybar]
Technically speaking you can install any tiling window manager on any distribution. However I'm going to split the line here between Debian (mostly Ubuntu) and Arch (I'm going to ignore Solus, Gentoo, and other Linux OS with unique file systems). If you're on Ubuntu you can install BSPWM without issues by simply running:
sudo apt install bspwm
However your efforts for viability in using the Polybar status bar ends there as you will have to install the extra dependencies to get Polybar to work, and even after installing the dependencies you have to reconfigure the cmake file to recognize where to find the siji font you have to install. Luckily for you if you know bash scripting really well and know how to for example pull out the clock configuration and print it into a UI, then you can use the default status bar bspwm installs called lemonbar which you can find out more of here: https://github.com/LemonBoy/bar
But if you are like me and don't want to learn Bash scripting, and you want to hop right into Polybar without issues, then Arch Linux is the operating system for you. I'm going to assume you know how to install it, if you don't it's alright I don't either, which is why I use anarchy to install it; it's an iso that has a cli interface to help you install Arch into your system https://www.anarchylinux.org/
In this tutorial I will be using Arch Linux as my OS and Gnome as my desktop environment of choice. It's one of the best desktop environments out there, and easy to apply themes to. Configure your desktop of choice how you like it, rice it up even if you wish to do so.
In Arch Linux packages aren't located in one place like they are in Ubuntu, instead you have a core set of packages the Arch Linux organization caters, and the default manager for packages is called pacman ; then you have a collection of extra packages maintained by users who lovingly love Arch's simplicity called the Arch User Repository (AUR), and to get a package from the AUR you need to use a community package manager. I do not recommend using any AUR package manager (aka helper) mentioned on the web instead use ones from this list that comes from the official Arch Linux organization: https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/AUR_helpers
I'm going to be using pikaur for this tutorial, to get it simply follow the instructions here: https://github.com/actionless/pikaur#installation and you'll be set.
A note on using your community package helper and pacman: you want to have the mindset that if something can be gotten from pacman, that you'll get it from pacman because pacman uses sudo priveleges; meaning that the maintainers of the software are telling you that you can trust a certain package and it's because it will be installed within your root folders. Community packages can contain malware; and by some god given miracle some bastard has written malware, it will have a tough time escalating privileges because community packages are installed on your home directory. Believe me I've genuinely tried this and it's hard to do; it ain't easy to do for hackers.
Now lets assume I'm starting from my gnome desktop, to install BSPWM on Arch, and while were at it lets install the other packages (note that one is a font) were going to focus on, simply run:
sudo pacman -S bspwm sxhkd picom ttf-font-awesome rxvt-unicode dmenu powerline python-pip feh neofetch zsh-theme-powerlevel9k lxappearance zsh rofi scrot
and while were at it lets install Polybar and the extra community packages (note that one is a font):
pikaur -S polybar nerd-fonts-complete cava bash-pipes cmatrix
Follow the prompts for each and install them. Note nerd fonts takes an incredibly long time to install, this is normal, you'll see pikaur stall at "compressing package" don't freak out!
Were also going to use pywal from dylanarlaps (https://github.com/dylanaraps/pywal), please donate to him, he's done incredible work in creating this amazing tool were going to use:
sudo pip3 install pywal
All of these software have githubs to them, feel free to google search for them and skim their wikis!
I also use zsh by default even though I'm not a mac user, but only real hacktivists use Oh My ZSH!
run the little curl command they got there, and you'll be part of the cool kids club!
At this point you might be tempted to switch to BSPWM and get started, but you'll meet with the impasse of being unable to do anything, even log out of the session. To prevent this, you need to understand how BSPWM works. To start off, you first need to navigate to a hidden folder called .config in your home directory. In here you need to create two folders, one named bspwmand the other sxhkd, and within them you're going to create two empty files called bspwmrcin the bspwm folder and sxhkdrc in the sxhkd folder. The rc files (running configuration) are responsible for handling the behavior of the window manager (bspwmrc does this) and the keystrokes (sxhkdrc does this). I'm going to give you the default content Baskerville created in his github (https://github.com/baskerville/bspwm) for BSPWM below, later we are going to modify this for some extra functionality, so for now just copy and paste these into the files you created:
bspwmrc: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/baskerville/bspwm/masteexamples/bspwmrc
And the last thing you want to do is make bspwmrc an executable, simply navigate to the file, right click it on your file manager, select properties>permissions, and tick the box to allow the file to be run as an executable. For sxhkdrc I won't be using urxvt, although I will give you the Xresources I created for it a long time ago, instead I'm going to use the gnome terminal to keep things easier. If you want to use the gnome terminal, simply replace urxvt with gnome-terminal in the sxhkdrc file.
Once you're done with this, log out and change your environment to BSPWM, to open a terminal press super+enter where super is your windows or mac key on your keyboard to bring up a terminal. To change your workspace press Super+2, and to open firefox, press super+space to use dmenu to search for it.
The way BSPWM works is through a socket-client model in which the handler (bspc) connects to a socket created by bspwm. You don't need to know too much about this in relation to this guide, but the config file I provide will get you started on how to setup commands for bspc. For now I want you to focus on that sxhkdrc is where you set your keybinds, sxhkd is the program that handles those keybinds, and bspc tells bspwm how to handle its backend. Consult the manual for BSPWM using man bspwm for more info.
[Part 2: Ricing and Modding BSPWM]
To start off I want you to select a background of your choice, and I want you to choose a background that doesn't just have two or three colors, but a mesh of beautiful colors, the more colors used the better. This background will model all of the colors used in your window borders and terminal through the use of a program called pywal: https://github.com/dylanaraps/pywal
Now before going any further, I highly recommend that if you ever get stuck on any of this, that you go into the github pages of these packages and consult their READMEs and wikis, because I wont be there to hold your hand unless I feel like it. However to satisfy your inner demon I'll be sure to supply you with as much information as I possibly can and split this by sections to build the killer desktop you crave. As a reference you can always refer to my dotfiles here: https://bitbucket.org/Volteos/linux-dot-files/src/maste ; I'll probably have made some changes here and there, but nothing major since the inception of this guide.
What I will NOT be dealing with is URxvt. Although the terminal seems to be the weapon of choice for BSPWM users I like my comfy Gnome Terminal, and to be fair, you can always pick the one you like; as far as this goes, any terminal will work with pywal because what it's actually dependent on is the zsh running config or .zshrc file hiding in your home directory. Oh and one last thing I had you install a program called dmenu, which you can use to bring up programs. Here are some basic keybinds to help you run stuff you need:
So assuming you've managed to install Oh My Zsh, and installed pywal like I told you to, and you have chosen your wallpaper you simply need to navigate to your bashrc file and add my stuff to it. Don't panic, really try to read my comments follows with (#) :
#set your wallpaper upon logging in &
feh --bg-fill $HOME/Path/to/youpicture &
#This invokes pywal with your image simply replace the path
wal -i $HOME/Path/to/youpicture &
#source the colors located within a shell script from your cache (you don't need to touch this).
. "${HOME}/.cache/wal/colors.sh"
#Set the border colors for your windows for focused, active and inactive ones.
bspc config normal_border_color "$color1"
bspc config active_border_color "$color2"
bspc config focused_border_color "$color15"
#Use the line below if you are on bspwm >= 0.9.4
bspc config presel_feedback_color "$color1"
#Use the line below if you are on bspwm < 0.9.4
#bspc config presel_border_color "$color1"
#place the focus on where the mouse is; if you like clicking windows to focus, comment this line
bspc config focus_follows_pointer true
After placing this in your bspwmrc file log out and log back in and you'll see the borders have adapted the color of the wallpaper behind it when you open your terminal. Neat right? But you might be asking, why doesn't the terminal take any colors? And the answer is in the shell it's using; remember that hidden file .zshrc in your home directory that you can't see if you don't have a show hidden files checkbox clicked on your file manager? open it, and at the very bottom of it, add this line:
wal -i $HOME/Path/to/youpicture
Now zsh is set to run pywal every time you open it. So now upon re-opening your terminal, you should see that the terminal has now taken the colors of your wallpaper. Feel free to adjust and modify these settings as you see fit. Change the colors, do as you please, as an added bonus to my setup I adjusted the gaps between my windows to be 25 pixels apart, like so:
#Define window settings
bspc config border_width 2
bspc config window_gap 25
bspc config split_ratio 0.52
bspc config borderless_monocle true
bspc config gapless_monocle true
If and only if you have more than one monitor like I do, simply adjust your bspc monitor line to look like so:
#Define Workspace Rules
bspc monitor HDMI-1 -d Terminal Sublime Firefox
bspc monitor DVI-D-1 -d ws4 ws5
#These options for follow and focus put you on the workspace these programs start on; the -a = activate
bspc rule -a Gnome-terminal desktop='^1' follow=on focus=on
bspc rule -a Sublime_text desktop='^2' follow=on focus=on
bspc rule -a firefox desktop='^3' follow=on focus=on
bspc rule -a ws4 desktop='^4' follow=on
bspc rule -a ws5 desktop='^5' follow=on
And replace the desktops with the appropriate names, which you can find by simply running xrandrin your terminal. Again it doesn't have to be copy and paste what I have you can always replace the programs and workspace configuration with your own to your liking.
[Part 3: Pimping Polybar]
At this point you must feel all proud of your new little setup, but you can't be satisfied until you've got some method of looking at what the time is, or what workspace your on, or even better, a way to turn of your computer.
That's where Polybar comes in, and now all you have to do is go to the github page for Polybar, and look through the wiki to find what you need. I've taken the liberty of copy and pasting every module I wanted; and put it all into one nice neat config file you can refer to. I don't feel like explaining how Polybar works as the wiki is more than acceptable.
Here's my file in raw format, you can copy and paste it, but there are certain parts on it you need to modify to make it work on your pc. So the first parts are within the first set of parameters under "Bar Module"; upon skimming carefully you'll notice that I've set up two bars named future1 and future2, and within them I've placed the respective monitors I want them on.
You'll also notice I've set some lines to set the fonts for them; now I use a font called font awesome to grab icons for the bar from:
within these lines:
;Define fonts to be used, check fc-list to see all the ones you have
font-0 = "Unifont:size=12:weight=bold;"
font-1 = "Font Awesome 5 Free,Font Awesome 5 Free Solid: style=Solid: size=12;"
font-2 = "Font Awesome 5 Free,Font Awesome 5 Free Regular: style=Regular: size=12"
font-3 = "Font Awesome 5 Brands,Font Awesome 5 Brands Regular:style=Regular"
I mention this and even put a comment on it to remind you of where and what to edit in the event that the creators of Font Awesome come out with a Font Awesome 6 and suddenly your icons on Polybar break. I once fell victim to this when Font Awesome 4 got released and it gave me a lot of frustration, so here I am saving you a massive headache should you choose to update your machine. So when Font Awesome 6 comes out change the 5 in Font Awesome 5 to a 6 and things should be okay again.
The rest of my file is pretty much ripped off straight from the wiki, so please consult each section as needed.
Alas to finally get Polybar to work you need to add it as a startup program in your bspwmrc file; in my case the lines would be:
polybar future1 &
polybar future2 &
because I named my bars future1 and future2.
My colors parameters section is ripped straight from from the pywal wiki here:https://github.com/dylanaraps/pywal/wiki/Customization . Just click on the Polybar Title and you'll see exactly what I put in there. The only thing is I added my own version of the background color because Pywal doesn't generate transparency in its code; only 6 Hex color codes, not the extra (AA) I added for transparency, I've also colored it dark purple.
[Part 3: Going blind the right way with Picom]
In the land before this guide was created, we used something called Compton to handle all of our compositor needs. If you don't know what a compositor does, it's a tool that lets you define shadows and transparency for your windows, and what I've done, which has viciously taken me 6 hours to achieve through trail and error, I am simply going to explain the config the best way I possibly can and give it to you. What I've managed to achieve is a subversive blur effect in addition to transparency, it's something you don't normally see in Unixporn configs, nor in desktop managers that use compton by default.
Here it is: https://bitbucket.org/Volteos/linux-dot-files/raw/ee4519ce7b62f56af42c127024a4dadece3d0e51/bspwm-config/picom/picom.conf
This was originally created by code_nomad and is a file ripped straight from the official Arch Linux website. Here's the original: https://git.archlinux.org/svntogit/community.git/tree/trunk/compton.conf?h=packages/compton#n80
And to this day I still don't know what everything on it, but I've made educated guesses, and will try and explain it from my perspective. Note that at the time of writing this Picom has only its terminal manual to explain things man picom, so I'm doing you a favor here. To get Picom going you need to add it as a startup program to your bspwmrc file:
#please replace accordingly
picom --config $HOME/path/to/youcreated/picom.conf/file &
The first and obvious mods I made are for the shadows, all I did is reset their offsets to 0 and set the opacity to 1 for them so you can clearly see them when you start picom. I did not touch the excluded shadows section.
The only section I truly played around with is the Opacity section. The first group of settings speak for themselves as they're pretty self explanatory (I'm ignoring the override I have no idea what that does). The opacity rules is the meat of this config file. The way it works is each window has a property to it internally that has a class name to it. Each rule on the list is defined as PERCENTOPAQUE:RULE. It's best to take an example, so let me use this one to start off with:
"99:class_g = 'firefox' && focused",
So what this rule does is set the opacity of my window with window class 'firefox' to 99 if I am focused on it. If I am not focused it will revert to the inactive opacity setting of 0.5 that I have. The class names are very specific to the program you're working with, sometimes, simply supplying the class name wont work because the specified window doesn't have a WM_OPACITY property set on it; so you're left to use just the class name on it like I did with sublime so that it matches the class to anything resembling the name of the program (that's what I was told the ? is for):
"99:class_g ?= 'sublime_text' && focused",
In order to find the proper class names you have to use a program called xprop (I'll let you figure out how to use this), the class name will be within WM_CLASS(STRING) = "some name here". As a general rule of thumb, for any program you use first try and see if using just the "=" works, and if it doesn't then just use the "?=". In the examples above if I don't want the opacity to change on focus, then just remove the && focusedlike I did with Rofi.
Blurring is a whole other concept I still don't fully understand however I played around with my settings and use a 7x7box kernel setting. If it lags for you, you can always try the 3x3box or the 5x5box kernel. You can also use the one in the original example with the crazy list of numbers, and just play around with it. I leave you to trial and error everything regarding blurring. I've chatted with some people on Unixporn about this, and I came across a neat little program called kawase, but according to Yshui, the maintainer of Picom, lack of manpower makes its integration hard, so if you're balsy enough to tackle this mountain, by all means help this person https://github.com/yshui/picom/issues/32 .
[Part 4: URxvt Lovers (if you're not using URxvt skip this)]
I don't mess around with this too much, here's my old .Xresources file, it includes some settings for Rofi, which I will cover later:
but it should work fine as long as you have Adobe source code pro fonts installed into your system. Here's the package index for the font in case if you don't have it: https://www.archlinux.org/packages/extra/any/adobe-source-code-pro-fonts/
Simply place that file in your home directory and you should be okay.
[Part 5: Fast Execution with Rofi]
Rofi is a neat little tool used to replace dmenu I recommend trying it out on your terminal just to get the feel for it. All I'm doing is applying the pywal instructions to play here, so here you go:
Original Instructions:
Just follow steps 1, 2, and 3 on this:
your end file for config.rasi should look like so:
configuration {
theme: "~/.cache/wal/colors-rofi-dark.rasi";
Be sure to replace your keybind dmenu for sxhkdrc for rofi, your keybind should look like so:
#program launcher
super + @space
rofi -show run
[Part 6: Setting the themes and default cursor]
If you're on Unixporn you probably already know how to setup User themes from source by putting them in your home directory so I wont explain that. However I will tell you that you need to use lxappearance to set the icons and theme. It's pretty self explanatory once you actually open lxappearance and play around with it.
The cursor however isn't permanent, at least in my case it wasn't, and luckily for you I found the solution. To set the default cursor:
1 - copy cursor theme to /usshare/icons
2 - change the default Inherits value to theme name as shown in lxappearance inside this file: /usshare/icons/default/index.theme
and you should be set. [There is a bug that changes the cursor when focusing on windows that aren't related to lxde, as soon as I figure out how to fix that I'll add that onto here].
[Part 7: POWUHLEVEL9000 (powerline ricing)]
Ricing Powerline has been a massive headache for me. However everything is done within the .zshrc file. I'll just give you what I have and the beefy github wiki created for it (https://github.com/Powerlevel9k/powerlevel9k/wiki). It uses the entire nerdfonts collection https://www.nerdfonts.com/ which is why it took so long to install, so for all intents and purposes, if you can change my zshrc file to your liking then by all means do so (https://bitbucket.org/Volteos/linux-dot-files/raw/ee4519ce7b62f56af42c127024a4dadece3d0e51/bspwm-config/.zshrc):
neofetch --ascii $HOME/path/to/some/file/with/ascii/art
wal -i $HOME/Path/to/youpicture -q
source /usshare/zsh-theme-powerlevel9k/powerlevel9k.zsh-theme
I've muted neofetch and pywal, I won't go into too much detail about neofetch only that I've muted it and used ascii art instead of an image. If you want to know more about neofetch this is your friend: https://github.com/dylanaraps/neofetch .
[Part 7: GODLEVEL10000 (Powerlevel10k) ]
I decided to add this as part of this guide, Powerlevel10k acts as a fork to Powerlevel9k that was introduced in March 2019, in which it absolutely speaks for itself. If you would love to try it out check out the github for it! https://github.com/romkatv/powerlevel10k/ I'll show you how to get started on it, I recommend starting off with migrating from Powerlevel9k. Assuming you have installed the nerd fonts and everything else, you should be good to go!
Start off by installing it from your AUR helper:
pikaur -S zsh-theme-powerlevel10k-git
Then simply run:
sudo git clone --depth=1 https://github.com/romkatv/powerlevel10k.git $ZSH_CUSTOM/themes/powerlevel10k
sed 's/powerlevel9k/powerlevel10k/g' -i ~/.zshrc
exec zsh
p10k configure
Follow the prompt and enjoy your now god level powerline config!
[The End]
This pretty much covers everything I hope to see some pretty gnarly configs down the line BSPWM is really on the rise and I think it's a much easier alternative to work with than i3, I love it so far, and hope its users come to love it as much as I do too someday!
submitted by Volteos to unixporn [link] [comments]

Tutorial: Using Borg for backup your QNAP to other devices (Advanced - CLI only)

Tutorial: Using Borg for backup your QNAP to other devices (Advanced - CLI only)
This tutorial will explain how to use Borg Backup to perform backups. This tutorial will specifically be aimed to perform backups from our QNAP to another unit (another NAS in your LAN, external hard drive, any off-site server, etc). But it is also a great tool to backup your computers to your NAS. This tutorial is a little bit more technical than the previous, so, be patient :)
MASSIVE WALL OF TEXT AHEAD. You have been warned.
Why Borg instead of, let’s say HBS3? Well, Borg is one of the best -if not THE BEST- backup software available. It is very resilient to failure and corruption. Personally I’m in love with Borg. It is a command line based tool. That means that there is no GUI available (there are a couple of front-end created by community, though). I know that can be very intimidating at first when you are not accustomed to it, and that it looks ugly, but honestly, it is not so complicated, and if you are willing to give it a try, I can assure you that is simple and easy. You might even like it over time!
That aside, I have found that HBS3 can only perform incremental backups when doing QNAP-QNAP backups. It can use Rsync to save files to a non-QNAP device, but then you can’t use incremental (and IIRC, neither Deduplication or encryption). It will even refuse to save to a mounted folder using hybrid mount. QNAP seems to be trying to subtle lock you down in their ecosystem. Borg has none of those limitations.

Main pros of Borg Backup:
- VERY efficient and powerful
- Space efficient thanks to deduplication and compression
- Allows encryption, deduplication, incremental, compression… you name it.
- Available in almost any OS (except Windows) and thanks to Docker, even in Windows. There are also ARM binaries, so it is Raspberry compatible, and even ARM based QNAPs that don’t support docker can use it!!!
- Since it’s available in most OS, you can use a single unified solution for all your backups.
- Can make backups in PUSH and PULL style. Either each machine with Borg pushes the files into the server, or a single server with Borg installed pulls the files from any device without needing to install Borg on those devices.
- It is backed by a huge community with tons of integration and wrapper tools (https://github.com/borgbackup/community)
- Supports Backup to local folders, LAN backups using NFS or SMB, and also remote backups using SFTP or mounting SSHFS.
- IT IS FOSS. Seriously, guys, whenever possible, choose FOSS.

Cons of Borg Backup:
- It is not tailored for backups to cloud services like Drive or Mega. You might want to take a look at Rclone or Restic for that.
- It lacks GUI, so everything is CLI controlled. I know, it can be very intimidating, but once you have used it for a couple of days, you will notice how simple and comfortable to use is.

The easiest way to run Borg is to just grab the appropriate prebuilt binary (https://github.com/borgbackup/borg/releases) and run it baremetal, but I’m going to show how to install Borg in a docker container so you can apply this solution to any other scenario where docker is available. If you want to skip the container creation, just proceed directly to step number 2.

There is currently no official Borg prebuilt container (although there are non-official ones). Since it’s a CLI tool, you don’t really need a prebuilt container, you can just use your preferred one (Ubuntu, Debian, Alpine etc) and install Borg directly in your container. We are using a ubuntu:latest container because the available Borg version for ubuntu is up to date. For easiness, all those directories we want to backup will be mounted inside the container in /output.
If you already are familiar with SSH and container creation though CLI, just user this template, substituting your specific directories mount.
docker run -it \ --cap-add=NET_ADMIN \ --net=bridge \ --privileged \ --cap-add SYS_ADMIN \ --device /dev/fuse \ --security-opt apparmor:unconfined \ --name=borgbackup \ -v /share/Movies:/output/Movies:ro \ -v /share/Important/Documents:/output/Documents:ro \ -v /share/Other:/output/Other:ro \ -v /share/Containeborgbackup/persist:/persist \ -v /etc/localtime:/etc/localtime:ro \ ubuntu:latest 
Directories to be backup are mounted as read only (:ro) for extra safety. I have also found that mounting another directory as “persistent” directory makes easy to create and edit the needed scripts directly from File Finder in QNAP, and also allows to keep them in case you need to destroy or recreate the container: this is the “/persist” directory. Use your favorite path.
If you are not familiar with SSH, first go here to learn how to activate and login into your QNAP using SSH (https://www.qnap.com/en/how-to/knowledge-base/article/how-to-access-qnap-nas-by-ssh/).
You can also use the GUI in Container Station to create the container and mount folders in advanced tab during container creation. Please, refer to QNAP’s tutorials about Docker.
GUI example
If done correctly, you will see that this container appears in the overview tab of Container Station. Click the name, and then click the two arrows. That will transport you to another tab inside the container to start working.

First check that the directory with all the data you want to backup (/output in our example) is mounted. If you can’t see anything, then you did something wrong in the first step when creating the container. If so, delete the container and try again. Now navigate to /persist using “cd /persist”
See how /output contains to-be-backup directories
Now, we are going to update ubuntu and install some dependencies and apps we need to work. Copy and paste this:
apt update && apt upgrade -y apt install -y nano fuse software-properties-common nfs-common ssh 
It will install a lot of things. Just let it work. When finished, install borgbackup using
add-apt-repository -y ppa:costamagnagianfranco/borgbackup apt install -y borgbackup 
When it’s finished, run “borg --version” and you will be shown the current installed version (at time of writing this current latest is 1.1.10). You already have Borg installed!!!!
1.1.10 is latest version at the time of this tutorial creation

Now, to init the repository, we first need to choose where we want to make the backup. Borg can easily make “local” backups, choosing a local folder, but that defeats the purpose for backups, right? We want to create remote repositories.
If you are making backups to a local (same network) device (another NAS, a computer, etc) then you can choose to use SFTP (SSH file transfer) or just NFS or SMB to mount a folder. If you want to backup to a remote repository outside your LAN (the internet) you HAVE to use SFTP or SSHFS. I’m explaining now how to mount folder using NFS, leaving SFTP for later.
Borg can work in two different ways: PUSH style or PULL style.
In PUSH style, each unit to be backup have Borg installed and it “pushes” the files to a remote folder using NFS, SMB or SSHFS. The target unit do not need to have Borg installed.
PUSH style backup: The QNAP sends files to the backup device

In PULL style, the target unit that is going to receive the backups has Borg installed, and it “pulls” the files from the units to be backup (and so, they don’t need Borg installed) using NFS, SMB or SSHFS. This is great if you have a powerful NAS unit and want to backup several computers.
PULL style backup: The backup device gets files from QNAP. Useful for multiple unit backups into the same backup server.

When using SFTP, the backup unit has Borg installed, opens a secure SSH connection to target unit, connects with Borg in target machine, and uploads the files. In SFTP style, BOTH units need Borg installed.
SFTP: Borg needs to be installed in both devices, and they \"talk\" each other.

I’m assuming you have another device with IP “” (in my example I’m using a VM with that IP) with a folder called “/backup” inside. I’m also assuming that you have correctly authorized NFS mount with read/write permissions between both devices. If you don’t now how to, you’ll need to investigate. (https://www.qnap.com/en-us/how-to/knowledge-base/article/how-to-enable-and-setup-host-access-for-nfs-connection/)
NFS mount means mirroring two folders from two different devices. So, mounting folder B from device Y into folder A from device X means that even if the folder B is “physically” stored on device Y, the device X can use it exactly as if it was folder A inside his local path. If you write something to folder A, folder B will automatically be updated with that new file and vice-versa.
Graphical example of what happens when mounting folders in Linux system.
Mount usage is: “mount [protocol] [targetIP]:/target/directory /local/directory” So, go to your container and write:
mount -t nfs /mnt 
Mount is the command to mount. “-t nfs” means using NFS, if you want to use SMB you would use “-t cifs”. is the IP of the device where you are going to make backups. /backup is the directory in the target we want to save our backups to (remember you need to correctly enable permission for NFS server sharing in the target device). /mnt is the directory in the container where the /backup folder will be mounted.
OK, so now /mnt in container = /backup in target. If you drop a .txt file in one of those directories, it will immediately appear on the other. So… All we have to do now is make a borg repository on /mnt and wildly start making backups. /mnt will be our working directory.

**FOURTH STEP: ACTUALLY USING BORG** (congrats if you made it here)
Read the documentation
It’s madness. Right?. It’s OK. In fact we only need a very few borg commands to make it work.
“borg init” creates a repository, that is, a place where the backup files are stored.
“borg create” makes a backup
“borg check” checks backup integrity
“borg prune” prunes the backup (deletes older files)
“borg extract” extract files from a backup
“borg mount” mounts a backup as if it was a directory and you can navigate it
“borg info” gives you info from the repository
“borg list” shows every backup inside the repository
But since we are later using pre-made scripts for backup, you will only need to actually use “init”, “info” and “list” and in case of recovery, “mount”.
let’s create our repository using INIT
borg init -e [encryption] [options] /mnt 
So, if you want to encrypt the repository with a password (highly recommended) use “-e repokey” or “-e repokey-blake2”. If you want to use a keyfile instead, use “-e keyfile”. If you don’t want to encrypt, use “-e none”. If you want to set a maximum space quota, use “--storage-quota ” to avoid excessive storage usage (I.e “--storage-quota 500G” or “--storage-quota 2.5T”). Read the link above. OK, so in this example:
borg init -e repokey –storage-quota 200G /mnt 
You will be asked for a password. Keep this password safe. If you lose it, you lose your backups!!!! Once finished, we have our repository ready to create the first backup. If you use “ls /mnt” you will see than the /mnt directory is no longer empty, but contains several files. Those are the repository files, and now should also be present in your backup device.
init performed successfully
Let’s talk about actually creating backups. Usually, you would create a backup using the “borg create” backup command, using something like this:
borg create -l -s /mnt::Backup01 /output --exclude ‘*.py’ 
That would create a backup archive called “backup01” of all files and directories in /output, but excluding every .py file. It will also verbose all files (-l) and stats (-s) during the process. If you later write the same but with “Backup02”, only new added files will be saved (incremental) but deleted files will still be available in “Backup01”. So as new backups are made, you will end running out of storage space. To avoid this you would need to schedule pruning.
borg prune [options] [path/to/repo] is used to delete old backups based on your specified options (I.e “save 4 last year backups, 1 backups each month last year, and 1 daily last month).
BUT. To make is simple, we just need to create a script that will automatically 1) Create a new backup with specified name and 2) run a Prune with specified retention policy.
Inside the container head to /persist using “cd /persist”, and create a file called backup.sh using
touch backup.sh chmod 700 backup.sh nano backup.sh 
Then, copy the following and paste it inside nano using CTRL+V
#!/bin/sh # Setting this, so the repo does not need to be given on the command line: export BORG_REPO=/mnt # Setting this, so you won't be asked for your repository passphrase: export BORG_PASSPHRASE='YOURsecurePASS' # or this to ask an external program to supply the passphrase: # export BORG_PASSCOMMAND='pass show backup' # some helpers and error handling: info() { printf "\n%s %s\n\n" "$( date )" "$*" >&2; } trap 'echo $( date ) Backup interrupted >&2; exit 2' INT TERM info "Starting backup" # Backup the most important directories into an archive named after # the machine this script is currently running on: borg create \ --verbose \ --filter AME \ --list \ --stats \ --show-rc \ --compression lz4 \ --exclude-caches \ --exclude '*@Recycle/*' \ --exclude '*@Recently-Snapshot/*' \ --exclude '*[email protected]__thumb/*' \ \ ::'QNAP-{now}' \ /output \ backup_exit=$? info "Pruning repository" # Use the `prune` subcommand to maintain 7 daily, 4 weekly and 6 monthly # archives of THIS machine. The 'QNAP-' prefix is very important to # limit prune's operation to this machine's archives and not apply to # other machines' archives also: borg prune \ --list \ --prefix 'QNAP-' \ --show-rc \ --keep-daily 7 \ --keep-weekly 4 \ --keep-monthly 6 \ prune_exit=$? # use highest exit code as global exit code global_exit=$(( backup_exit > prune_exit ? backup_exit : prune_exit )) if [ ${global_exit} -eq 0 ]; then info "Backup and Prune finished successfully" elif [ ${global_exit} -eq 1 ]; then info "Backup and/or Prune finished with warnings" else info "Backup and/or Prune finished with errors" fi exit ${global_exit} 
This script seems very complicated, but all it does is
  1. Define the backup location
  2. Define backup parameters, inclusions and exclusions and run backup
  3. Define pruning policy and run prune
  4. Show stats
You can freely modify it using the options you need (they are described in the documentation).
“export BORG_REPO=/mnt” is where the repository is located.
“export BORG_PASSPHRASE='YOURsecurePASS' is your repository password (between the single quotes)
After “borg create” some options are defined, like compression, file listing and stat showing. Then exclusion are defined (each –exclude defines one exclusion rules. In this example I have defined rules to avoid backup thumbnails, recycle bin files, and snapshots). If you wish to exclude mode directories or files, you do it adding a new rule there.
::'QNAP-{now}' defines how backups will be named. Right now they will be named as QNAP-”current date and time”. In case you want only current date and not time used, you can use instead:
::'QNAP-{now:%Y-%m-%d}' \
Be aware that if you decide to do so, you will only be able to create a single backup each day, as subsequent backups the same day will fail, since Borg will find another backup with same name and skip the current one.
/output below is the directory to be backup.
And finally, prune policy is at the end. This defines what backups will be kept and which ones will be deleted. Current defined policy is to keep 7 end of day, then 4 end of week and 6 end of month backups. Extra backups will be deleted. You can modify this depending on your needs. Follow the documentation for extra information and examples.
Now save the script using CTRL+O. We are ready. Run the script using:
It will show progress, including what files are being saved. After finishing, it will return backup name (in this example “QNAP-2020-01-26T01:05:36“ is the name of the backup archive), stats and will return two rc status, one for the backup, and another for pruning. “rc0” means success. “rc1” means finished, but with some errors. “rc2” means failed. You should be returned two rc0 status and the phrase “Backup and Prune finished successfully”. Congrats.
Backup completed. rc 0=good. rc 2=bad
You can use any borg command manually against your repository as needed. For example:
borg list /mnt List your current backups inside the repository borg list /mnt::QNAP-2020-01-26T01:05:36 List all archives inside this specific backup borg info /mnt List general stats of your repository borg check -v –show-rc /mnt Performs an integrity check and returns rc status (0, 1 or 2) 
All that is left is to create the final running script and the cronjob in our QNAP to automate backups. You can skip the next step, as it describes the same process but using SFTP instead of NFS, and head directly to step number Six.

If you want to perform backups to an off-site machine, like another NAS located elsewhere, then you can’t use NFS or SMB, as they are not prepared to be used through internet and are not safe. We must use SFTP. SFTP is NOT FTP over SSL (that is FTPS). SFTP stands for Secure File Transfer Protocol, and it’s based on SSH but for file transfer. It is secure, as everything is encrypted, but expect lower speed due encryption overhead. We need to first set it up SSH on our target machine, so be sure to enable it. I also recommend to use a non standard port. In our example, we are using port 4000.
IMPORTANT NOTE: To use SFTP, borg backup must be running in the target machine. You can run it baremetal, or use a container, just as in our QNAP, but if you really can’t get borg running in the target machine, then you cannot use SFTP. There is an alternative, though: SSHFS, which is basically NFS but over SSH. With it you can securely mount a folder over internet. Read this documentation (https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/how-to-use-sshfs-to-mount-remote-file-systems-over-ssh) and go back to Third Step once you got it working. SSHFS is not covered in this tutorial.
First go to your target machine, and create a new user (in our example this will be “targetuser”)
Second we need to create SSH keys, so both the original machine and the target one can perform SSH connection without needing for a password. It also greatly increases security. In our original container run
ssh-keygen -t rsa 
When you are asked for a passphrase just press enter (no passphrase). Your keys are now stored in ~/.ssh To copy them to your target machine, use this:
ssh-copy-id -p 4000 [email protected] 
If that don’t work, this is an alternative command you can use:
cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub | ssh -p 4000 [email protected] "mkdir -p ~/.ssh && chmod 700 ~/.ssh && cat >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys" 
You will be asked for targetuser password when connecting. If you were successful, you can now SSH without password in the target machine using “ssh -p 4000 [email protected]”. Try it now. If you get to login without password prompt, you got it right. If it still asks you for password when SSH’ing, try repeating the last step or google a little about how to transfer the SSH keys to the target machine.
Now that you are logged in your target machine using SSH, install Borg backup if you didn’t previously, create the backup folder (/backup in our example) and init the repository as was shown in Third Step.
borg init -e repokey –storage-quota 200G /backup 
Once the repository is initiated, you can exit SSH using “exit” command. And you will be back in your container. You know what comes next.
cd /persist touch backup.sh chmod 700 backup.sh nano backup.sh 
Now paste this inside:
#!/bin/sh # Setting this, so the repo does not need to be given on the command line: export BORG_REPO=ssh://[email protected]:4000/backup # Setting this, so you won't be asked for your repository passphrase: export BORG_PASSPHRASE='YOURsecurePASS' # or this to ask an external program to supply the passphrase: # export BORG_PASSCOMMAND='pass show backup' # some helpers and error handling: info() { printf "\n%s %s\n\n" "$( date )" "$*" >&2; } trap 'echo $( date ) Backup interrupted >&2; exit 2' INT TERM info "Starting backup" # Backup the most important directories into an archive named after # the machine this script is currently running on: borg create \ --verbose \ --filter AME \ --list \ --stats \ --show-rc \ --compression lz4 \ --exclude-caches \ --exclude '*@Recycle/*' \ --exclude '*@Recently-Snapshot/*' \ --exclude '*[email protected]__thumb/*' \ \ ::'QNAP-{now}' \ /output \ backup_exit=$? info "Pruning repository" # Use the `prune` subcommand to maintain 7 daily, 4 weekly and 6 monthly # archives of THIS machine. The 'QNAP-' prefix is very important to # limit prune's operation to this machine's archives and not apply to # other machines' archives also: borg prune \ --list \ --prefix 'QNAP-' \ --show-rc \ --keep-daily 7 \ --keep-weekly 4 \ --keep-monthly 6 \ prune_exit=$? # use highest exit code as global exit code global_exit=$(( backup_exit > prune_exit ? backup_exit : prune_exit )) if [ ${global_exit} -eq 0 ]; then info "Backup and Prune finished successfully" elif [ ${global_exit} -eq 1 ]; then info "Backup and/or Prune finished with warnings" else info "Backup and/or Prune finished with errors" fi exit ${global_exit} 
CTRL+O to save, and CTRL+X to exit. OK, let’s do it.
It should correctly connect and perform your backup. Note that the only thing I modified from the script shown in Fourth Step is the “BORG_REPO” line, which I substituted from local “/mnt” to remote SSH with our target machine and user data.
Finally all that is left is to automate this.

The only problem is that containers can’t retain mount when they reboot. That is not problem if you are using SFTP, but in case of NFS, we need to re-mount each time the container is started, and fstab does not work in container. The easiest solution is create a script called “start.sh”
cd /persist mkdir log touch start.sh chmod 700 start.sh nano start.sh 
and inside just paste this:
#!/bin/bash log=”/persist/log/borg.log” mount -t nfs /mnt /persist/backup.sh 2>> $log echo ==========FINISH========== >> $log 
Save and try it. Stop container, and start it again. If you use “ls /mnt” you will see that the repository is no longer there. That is because the mounting point unmounted when you stopped the container. Now run
When it’s finished, a log file will appear inside /persist/log. It contains everything borg was previously putting in the screen, and you can check it using
cat /persist/log/borg.cat 
Everything is ready. All we need to do is is create a crontab job to automate this script whenever we want. You can read here how to edit crontab in QNAP (https://wiki.qnap.com/wiki/Add_items_to_crontab). Add this line to the crontab:
0 1 * * * docker start borgbackup && docker exec borgbackup -c /bin/bash “/persist/start.sh” && docker stop borgbackup 
That will launch container each day at 1:00 am, run the start.sh script, and stop the container when finished.

In case you need to recover your data, you can use any device with Borg installed. There are two commands you can use: borg extract and borg mount. Borg extract will extract all files inside an archive into current directory. Borg mount will mount the repository so you can navigate it, and choose specific files you want to recover, much like NFS or SMB work.
Some examples:
borg extract /mnt::QNAP-2020-01-26T01-05-36 -> Extract all files from this specific backup time point into current directory borg mount /mnt::QNAP-2020-01-26T01-05-36 /recover -> Mounts this specific backup time point inside the /recover directory so you can navigate and search files inside borg mount /mnt /recover -> Mounts all backup time points inside the /recover directory. You can navigate inside all time points and recover whatever you want borg umount /recover -> Unmounts the repository from /recover 

I know this is a somewhat complicated tutorial, and sincerely, I don’t think there will be a lot of people interested, as Borg is for advanced users. That said, I had a ton of fun using borg and creating this tutorial. I hope it can help some people. I am conscious that like 99% of this community's users do not need advanced features and would do great using HB3... But TBH, I'm writing for that 1%.
Next up: I’m trying a duplicati container that it is supposed to have GUI, so… maybe the next tutorial will be a GUI based backup tool. How knows?
submitted by Vortax_Wyvern to qnap [link] [comments]

2019 Report - 89 games down!

2018 report
2017 report
Despite the solid number, this was a bit of a mixed year. Free/nominal fees for subscription services meant I spent a fair bit of time on games which were not on my backlog (albeit most were on my wishlist, so I can treat them as a preemptive elimination!). I also had a few timesinks which I regularly went back to as I found many new games to be unsatisfying.

Completed Games

Game Hours
The Lion's Song 4
AER Memories of Old 3
Mad Max 35
Quantum Break 11
Hitman - The Complete First Season 12
Grim Fandango Remastered 6
The Deadly Tower of Monsters 5
Overfall 12
Rock of Ages 2 5
Battlefield 1 6
Soul Gambler 1
Stikbold 3
Cultist Simulator 14
Ziggurat 5
Tyranny 18
Orwell: Ignorance is Strength 3
Tesla Effect: A Tex Murphy Adventure 10
Train Valley 8
Rakuen 6
Dangerous Golf 7
Mutant Year Zero 13
Dishonored 2 18
Finding Paradise 5
The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt GoTY 85
SteamWorld Dig 2 6
Batman: Arkham Knight 30
West of Loathing ~15
The Flame in the Flood 7
Monster Prom 7
Yakuza 0 38
Dominique Pamplemousse 1.5
South Park: The Fractured But Whole + DLC ??
Hellblade: Senua's Sacrifice 8
Pizza Express 8
Yoku's Island Express 6
The Darkside Detective 4
Tales of Berseria 47
The Outer Worlds 21
Agents of Mayhem: Day One Edition 26

Other Games

Game Hours
PixelJunk Nom Nom Galaxy 4
Action Henk 2
Shantae and the Pirate's Curse 4
Castlevania: Lords of Shadow Ultimate Edition 5
Sheltered 12
Sid Meier's Civilization VI 31
Porno Studio Tycoon 3
Aarklash: Legacy 2
Intergalactic Bubbles 2
Tom Clancy's The Division 21
Kingdom: New Lands Royal Edition 4
Halcyon 6: Lightspeed Edition 9
FIFA 18 22
Seven: The Days Long Gone 7
Age of Wonders 3 12
The Dweller 1.4
Out of the Park Baseball 19 30
Niche: A Genetics Survival Game 3
Royal Heroes 4
Endless Space 2 - Digital Deluxe Edition 41
Monster Slayers 11
Dark Train 0.5
State of Decay 2 ~5
The Banner Saga 3 ~2
Gremlins, Inc 5
Warhammer 40,000: Space Wolf 8
Strider 2
Warhammer 40K: Dawn of War 2 9
The Painscreek Killings 2
Road Redemption 8
Moonlighter 7
Shelter 1
Mainlining 2
Reassembly 5
12 Labours of Hercules V: Kids of Hellas 3
Aaero 2
Purrfect Date 5
Space Hulk Ascension 3
Super Daryl Deluxe 8
Think of the Children 2
Legend of Grimrock 2 4
FIFA 19 18
Out of the Park Baseball 20 1
Oriental Empires 6
Iratus: Lord of the Dead 9
Into The Breach 5
There Came an Echo 1.3
World of Mixed Martial Arts 5 ~120
Star Trek Timelines ~180
Football Manager Touch 2019 ~80

Favourite games of the year

1) Rakuen
2) Finding Paradise
3) Monster Prom
4) Witcher 3 GotY
5) Yakuza 0

Most disappointing games of the year

1) The Outer Worlds
2) State of Decay 2
3) Warhammer 40,000 – Space Wolf
4) Purrfect Date
5) Tom Clancy’s The Division

Thoughts on each game

The Lion’s Song
Quite an interesting little game. It manages to link stories about music, painting, mathematics and war in a clever and engrossing way. The choices are genuinely impactful and make for tough decisions at times.
AER: Memories of Old
A short game, but quite relaxing and pretty – especially in the flight sections. I had no interest in the story, but the relatively gentle puzzles and enjoyable flights made it worthwhile.
Mad Max
Much like Mafia III, this is a 10-hour game elongated into a 30+ hour game by copy-pasting tasks. While in theory most tasks are optional, the slow progress and gating of upgrades essentially requires completion of much of them. This becomes a grind, and the gameplay isn’t quite enough to keep it interesting.
Quantum Break
A mediocre story and a mediocre shooter, yet somehow more than the sum of its parts. Maybe I’m just nostalgic for the days of FMV integration in games, but this wound up being quite entertaining.
Hitman – season 1
My first and only other Hitman game is Absolution, which apparently was a departure for the series. That leaves me in the position of finding this return to normality for the series as rather jarring. I prefer the linear and tighter nature of Absolution – since I don’t care enough to go back and complete them in different ways, it felt like a bit of a thin and shallow experience with a threadbare story.
Grim Fandango Remastered
I’m dreadful at P&C puzzle games, and quickly realised I wasn’t going to get far without a guide. As such, I cheated my way through most of it and just played it for the writing. Thankfully, the writing is so good that it was still fun. I wasn’t keen on Full Throttle, which I played last year, but this was amusing throughout.
The Deadly Tower of Monsters
A fun concept – a B-movie spoof – combined with surprisingly forgiving platforming mechanics. I’m not a fan of platformers generally, but the frustration-alleviating features and general sense of humour in the game made for a good experience.
Solid roguelike tactical combat, marred by some sloppy writing [I don’t think English is the first language of the writers, but at least a spell-check would have helped], a wonky interface [pertinent information like resistances is obscured] and a strangely harsh unlock system. Not a bad game by any means, but could have been better with a bit more care.
Rock of Ages 2
Bizarre concept, even more bizarre writing, but entertainingly so. It’s surprisingly good-looking and quite fun, but five hours was quite enough for me.
Battlefield 1
I haven’t played a Battlefield game since Vietnam, so this took a bit of adjusting. The campaign is very well presented and offers a nice bit of variety, but it’s over so fast. I had no interest in multiplayer, so this made for a brief, if fun, experience.
Soul Gambler
A very brief visual novel, but at least it had distinct story paths. The writing was decent, if a bit awkward. My main gripe was that you had to individually click through each line on subsequent playthroughs, which is something many visual novels these days manage to avoid.
A rather strange dodgeball game. I didn’t find the strangeness nearly as amusing as Rock of Ages 2, but it was a moderately entertaining experience with a bit of variety through the different settings and objectives.
Cultist Simulator
I’m a bit mixed on this. On one hand, it had a surprising amount of content and complexity to it. On the other, it drastically inflated the complexity by veiling basic gameplay aspects. That could mean a lot of wasted time – or worse, inadvertently wrecking a multi-hour playthrough - because it wasn’t clear what you should be doing next. Walkthroughs and guides were essential. While there’s merit to a game which rewards experimentation and discovery of mechanics, there is a point at which it’s just too obtuse, and at times the game did go a bit too far in that respect.
A quite clever blend of roguelike and FPS. I’m not much of a fan of the latter, but the gameplay was fun and the roguelike elements softened the blow of failure.
I disliked Pillars of Eternity and went into this with some trepidation. Fortunately, it was a more enjoyable and accessible experience. Where Pillars just threw a mindnumbing amount of lore at me, this offered a relatively comprehensible story doled out in appropriate chunks. While it did have some of Pillars’ mechanical issues, like poor pathfinding in combat, they did not seem nearly as bad (perhaps due to the smaller scale of battles). The base management stuff seemed tacked on, confusing and wholly unnecessary. It was far from my favourite RPG, but solid enough – and didn’t overstay its welcome.
Orwell: Ignorance is Strength
I enjoyed the first Orwell game and initially found this a similarly good experience. The few changes were worthwhile ones, and the story seemed to be building up well. Then it suddenly ended. Surely I done something wrong and met an early endgame? Nope, that was it – a mere few hours of gameplay, with an ending so abrupt that I had no idea it was one until the credits rolled. There are different endings, requiring additional playthroughs, but after that disappointment I wasn’t interested in going back to it.
Tesla Effect: A Tex Murphy Adventure
This was my first game in the series, and I found it enjoyable. I only had to cheat a few times (which is remarkably good by my standards!) and the cheesiness of it was all rather endearing. The sequel is now on my wishlist (though it seems to be a fair way off).
Train Valley
A decent puzzle/strategy game, which quickly escalates from rather placid to chaotic. The simple concept still requires a fair bit of thought to succeed, and while I bumbled through somewhat, it was fun.
Beautiful. One of my favourite games, evoking the spirit of To the Moon by dealing with weighty topics in a whimsical manner. Wonderful soundtrack and great design.
Dangerous Golf
I enjoyed this more than I’d expected. It’s all a bit messy, as one would expect from a heavily physics-based game, and almost throws in too many variations, but it is fairly satisfying. In some levels it’s all too easy to get a platinum medal through sheer luck, but in other levels it takes a fair bit of skill and thought to get a good score, which is rather more satisfying.
Mutant Year Zero
This was frustrating. It has the ingredients for a solid game – great presentation, imaginative world, decent writing and voice acting and the core of a solid tactics game. The problem is that it is structured essentially like a puzzle game. The odds are so intensely stacked against you in a group battle that you must pick off enemies one by one. This makes for a slow and tedious process, especially when combined with the impact of RNG and the unsatisfying ending.
Dishonoured 2
I felt a little let down by this. Presentation was good, story was fine, but the powers were mostly unengaging and the combat was frustrating. The combat issues were partly my fault in that I tried a non-lethal run, but while there were a few more non-lethal options, I would have loved an option to just punch someone in the face rather than having to stand around waiting to parry in order to launch a non-lethal attack.
Finding Paradise
This had a lot to live up to – To the Moon and A Bird Story are among my favourite games – but once again Kan Gao delivered. Touching, funny, surprising and engrossing.
The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt – GotY Edition
I went into this with a bit of trepidation, having strongly disliked the first two games in the series. While I am a big fan of the books, the gameplay never clicked with me. This was an improvement to some degree, but I still found the combat in particular frustrating and relatively shallow. I wound up just playing it as a story, and it delivered in that respect – even many of the side quests were more memorable than the main storylines of a lot of other RPGs I’ve played. While I certainly won’t be joining the “Praise Geraldo” crew, I at least had a better experience than I did with the other games in the series.
SteamWorld Dig 2
I loved the first game. This was certainly enjoyable but did not reach quite the same heights; perhaps through lack of ambition if nothing else. Solid enough, but lacking the impact of its predecessor.
Batman: Arkham Knight
This felt like the weakest of the three main Arkham games (I didn’t like Origins much at all, but that is somewhat separate). The combat, setting and presentation were all as interesting as ever, and the story got genuinely interesting towards the end, but the damned car seemed to drag down everything it was involved in. From puzzles to battles, it always felt a bit wonky to me – a particularly sharp contrast to the famously smooth and refined movement and combat the series is known for. Unlike Asylum and City, I didn’t complete the Riddler challenges. This was primarily due to the car, which I was thoroughly sick of by the end. Perhaps I was rendered a bit grumpier than usual by that, but I also found the Rocksteady tendency to lead the player by the nose at some points, and then leave things utterly oblique at other times, to be particularly grating.
West of Loathing
Genuinely funny at times, and I loved the art style, but it did drag on a little.
The Flame in the Flood
Quite an atmospheric and appealing game. The presentation is gorgeous, albeit marred by irritating pop-in even on a GTX 1080. The gameplay is pretty easy to pick up, and while it can be frustrating in the way that a survival game with randomisation inevitably can be (and why the hell can’t I boil water to remove the bugs?!), the checkpoint system is generous enough to ameliorate this.
Monster Prom
I am not usually one for VNs, but this is great. Entertaining characters, often hilarious (and oh so wrong) writing and easy enough to play through in 15 minutes (it says the short game is 30 minutes, but it doesn't take me anywhere near that). There is plenty of content, some of which is unlockable, meaning there is substantial replayability.
Yakuza 0
The first in the series for me, and quite enjoyable. It was funny at times, though the main plot did cause me to drift off towards the end – I wound up doing crosswords during some of the interminable cutscenes. The combat got a bit repetitive, but it was easy enough to get the hang of. I didn’t enjoy it enough to get stuck into the numerous side activities, but the main game was decent enough.
Dominique Pamplemousse
This is a curious game. It is brief (barely an hour long) and linear. The puzzles are simple. Much of the dialogue is sung, for no apparent reason - and not particularly well. The art style has been described as "claymation noire"; there's little er..."mation", and it all looks a bit muddy. Writing is fine. I chuckled at a few bits, but it's hardly memorable.For all that, I quite liked it. It's original and there's heart to it. In a sea of lazy asset flips, generic AAA games with no respect for your time and visionless projects, here's an example of people actually daring to have a go with a unique vision.
South Park: The Fractured But Whole
Not nearly as well-written as its predecessor, but with significantly better combat. The badge progression system was clumsy, and at one point I was left with a stack of grinding to do. Generally a solid experience, though.
Hellblade: Senua’s Sacrifice
Wonderful presentation, with some of the best voice acting I’ve heard in games. The gameplay itself was decent. Combat was a little too simple, and puzzles could be frustrating at times, but it’s really all about the experience.
Pizza Express
I feel a little silly having spent a lot of money on a gaming rig when I use it to play stuff that looks like something out of the early ‘90s. Nonetheless, this was good fun – amusing story, addictive gameplay and a surprising amount of content.
Yoku’s Island Express
Cutely presented and an interesting concept. It can be infuriating at times, requiring a degree of precision which is perhaps best not associated with pinball, and getting around can be a bit confusing. Overall, though, it’s quite fun.
The Darkside Detective
A pretty simple point & click adventure (aside from one strangely hard instalment), broken into small episodes to make it easy to get through a portion at a time. Nothing exceptional, but a decent way to spend a few hours.
Tales of Berseria
A surprisingly engrossing tale. It's frequently funny and features likeable characters. The voice acting is excellent - it's a tour de force for Cristina Valenzuela in particular.
That helps mitigate a convoluted combat system. It was still throwing tutorials at me after 15 hours; I wound up ignoring them and button mashing, which seemed to work fine on Normal difficulty anyway.
Performance is rock solid. Smooth FPS, fast loading and limited pop-in.
I have never played a Tales game before, and may not play another one, but it doesn't take a love for the series to enjoy this game. Perhaps the group best warned to stay away are achievement hunters - some of them seem to take a heck of a lot of work.
The Outer Worlds
Disappointing. The simplistic combat not only makes that portion of the game dull, but also weakens the RPG aspects since you can pour all your upgrade points into speech skills, making those challenges a breeze. The writing is one-note (everyone is quirky, snarky or both), the choices are binary and rarely provoke thought (indeed, the hardest choice was one of the very first) and the characters aren't particularly interesting - nor are they given much chance to be in their shallow quests. It also performed poorly on a decent rig - though that's to be expected from Obsidian.
Agents of Mayhem
It's...not that bad. Sure, it's flawed - repetitive quests, buggy at times and nowhere near the level of Saints Row's writing - but it has an enjoyably distinct set of characters (sadly enough, the character missions were more interesting than those of Outer Worlds) and the combat is enjoyably free-flowing.
PixelJunk Nom Nom Galaxy
I liked the idea of discovering ingredients and turning them into various products, but it quickly became centred around ever more complex process designs which were of no interest to me.
Action Henk
A fun runner; gorgeously presented. I sucked at it though!
Shantae and the Pirate’s Curse Presented in an enjoyably light-hearted manner, but it felt like it was dragging on even after four hours.
Castlevania: Lords of Shadow Ultimate Edition
I was quite excited to play this, since it featured three of my favourite actors – Patrick Stewart, Robert Carlyle and Jason Isaacs. That’s the only reason I managed to last five hours. I hated pretty much everything about it; the shoddy fixed camera, the tedious fighting, the cringeworthy writing… The sad thing is that I bought another two games in the series.
A solid little survival management game. I didn’t enjoy it nearly as much as Zafehouse Diaries or Dead State, mainly because the RNG was a bit too impactful. It’s far too common for a game to simply be unwinnable due to a lack of rain and/or the distribution of resources in nearby locations. When things are fairer (or the difficulty is lowered) it becomes quite a grind – with no real winning condition and little in the way of variety (there are a few shallow quests of minimal value or interest) tedium ensues.
Civilization VI
Quite liked the new mechanics and enjoyed playing as Australia (though Walzing Matilda is so distinctive that it gets a bit grating). Having spent many hours in its predecessors though, there was nothing particularly groundbreaking which compelled me to play more than a few games.
Porno Studio Tycoon
I’ll give pretty much any management game a go! Unfortunately, things weren’t particularly well explained and while there seemed to be a bit of depth, a lot of it was blocked off (to add to the confusion, the tutorial focused on mechanics which were blocked off for much of the early game).
Aarklash: Legacy
I normally like tactical games, but this was just too unforgiving and there was no ability to grind to reduce the difficulty.
Intergalactic Bubbles
It’s basically Bubble Bobble, which is fine. It’s quite nicely presented. The problem is that each level is meant to be completed in a certain number of moves, but since the bubble colours are randomly generated, it’s mostly down to luck – you might be able to wipe out half the bubbles on your first move, or might struggle to get any matches at all.
Tom Clancy’s The Division
I got fairly close to the end of this game but was just so fed up with it that I couldn’t push myself to get through it. The story was forgettable, the shooting mechanics were mediocre, all the extraneous gameplay elements were just an annoyance and I felt the game was balanced against me as a solo player (only twice did I find a co-op partner, and both of them screamed in Korean throughout). It looked impressive, at least.
Kingdom: New Lands Edition
I really thought I’d like this game, and had it on my wishlist from release. I love management games, and have no issue with passive management. It also looked gorgeous; this is one of the best-looking pixel-art games I’ve played. Unfortunately, it did not click at all. The AI was not bright, which is inevitably a source of a lot of frustration in a passive management game. Further, the gameplay was just dull. I felt like I was running back and forth endlessly for little reward – pretty though it may have been, I found myself wishing for a button to speed up time. The positive reviews suggest it is a relaxing and chill game – I just found myself frustrated with the AI and bored by the gameplay.
Halcyon 6: Lightspeed Edition
For some reason I thought this was more of a starbase management sim rather than a tactical space battle sim. The starbase elements are there, but they are pretty thin. Most of the game is about the tactical space battles, which were interesting and varied enough early on, but after nine hours and no end in sight I was sick of them.
I haven’t played a FIFA game since ’98, so it was interesting to give this a go. The story mode was okay – quite well presented, but the player rating system was infuriating at times (the out-of-position penalties in particular). I did find that there was a huge gap in the difficulty settings – one was ludicrously easy (insultingly so; the AI kept missing from close range), but the next was a bit too steep for someone essentially new to the series. An option between the two would have been nice, or at least an easier difficulty which at least tried to mask how easy it was making things! I also tried management mode, but having been used to Football Manager’s detail I was not able to get into this.
Seven: The Days Long Gone
This was a frustrating experience. I really liked the concept of an isometric thief RPG, and did my best to give it a fair chance. It had its positive aspects; freedom of movement, decent voice acting and reasonable graphics. However, the freedom of movement also worked against it; confrontations with enemies often spiralled into circular chases suited to Benny Hill music and I lost count of the number of times I plunged to an untimely death through a misstep. Moreover, it didn’t really work to its premise. The game started with a tutorial centred around a stealthy heist, which seemed to be the central premise of the game. The next time I encountered a situation close to that was six hours later.
Age of Wonders 3
I loved Shadow Magic many years ago but struggled to get into this. Maps seemed to take an inordinately long time to the point that armies were monstrously large and there was no research left. Maybe I was too defensive, but the AI was very passive.
The Dweller
A decent little puzzle game with minimal assets.
Out of the Park Baseball 19
A slight improvement on its predecessor. The main addition was an online card-game mode, but I’m not sure that works well in a management game. My squad was rapidly full of high-end talent and I felt no real connection to the team.
Niche: A Genetics Survival Game
Nice concept, but a rather wobbly execution. The genetics aspect tended to be lost due to the fast paced and tough nature of the game; the focus was so much on just keeping any creature alive that genetics didn’t come into my thinking. Apparently the best strategy is to sit on the first island for ages and build up a tribe, but the tutorial didn’t make that clear at all.
Royal Heroes
A grindy and buggy mobile game.
Endless Space 2 – Digital Deluxe Edition
I thought I was falling out of love with the space 4X genre, having been very disappointed with the last few I placed – particularly Stellaris – but this hit the mark. The alien races are distinct, making for significantly different gameplay. The gameplay itself is always interesting; unlike Stellaris, it doesn’t hit a dead patch mid-game. I found the combat a little frustrating – seemingly even contests would often have completely one-sided results for no apparent reason – but aside from that it was a solid game.
Monster Slayers
An enjoyable little rogue-lite deck builder. While I normally prefer a bit more flexibility in deck building, tying cards to characters meant that each one had a distinctive feel which gave the game plenty of replayability.
Dark Train
This sounded interesting in concept, but was way too oblique for me.
State of Decay 2
This seemed like the perfect game for me – I love survival management and settlement building. Unfortunately, it wound up feeling rather like a shallow MMO – trite dialogue, grindy tasks and no real sense of purpose or direction. I just found myself engaging in long, dull runs between locations, engaging in the same shoddy combat over and over again.
The Banner Saga 3
I played the first two games in the series to completion and seem to recall enjoying them, but something about this did not click at all. I had zero interest in the story – the time between instalments has dulled my memory of it – and the gameplay just felt so flat. I’m not really sure what changed between playing the last two games and now, but I had no motivation to keep playing.
Gremlins, Inc
A reasonably enjoyable but forgettable board game.
Warhammer 40,000 – Space Wolf
This is a game plagued by odd design choices. It has turn-based combat (which I love), but it is deprived of so much of its strategy by the way it is designed. Enemies appear at arbitrary moments from arbitrary locations (including amid your troops) without warning or logic, meaning that success requires either a degree of fortune or grinding missions to know when and where enemies will appear. Perhaps this is to compensate for the weak AI, which is prone to boneheaded acts, but it just makes things irritating and dull.
It also has a card collecting and deck building mechanic (again, which I love). The distribution of cards, however, is bizarre – completing tasks in missions (which can take 30+ minutes each) will give a couple of low-level cards. In contrast, activating one of numerous codes from the forums provides a pile of high-level cards. “Legendary” cards are so readily available in this form that a deck can be filled with them with a few minutes’ effort. There is a clumsy system for upgrading each card, none of which is explained in the shallow tutorial.
There is also an upgrade path for your squadmates – again poorly explained – which is reliant on grinding missions. They don't use your custom decks, so while you're flooded with Elite and Legendary cards for the leader, you have to grind just to eke out a few more Uncommons for the rest of your squad.
There's really nothing else to recommend the game. Graphics and sound are serviceable and the story is barely there. It just feels like yet another Warhammer game pushed out for the sake of it.
Warhammer 40,000 – Dawn of War II
Another disappointing Warhammer game.
Again this had things I liked – a strategic layer with character progression, equippable loot, choice of missions and ebb and flow of the wider battle. However, I found this constrained by the limits placed on that strategy, with constant time pressure funnelling me into the key missions . I’m not sure how much that time pressure would have impacted on the outcome – would doing side missions result in overall failure – as it was never properly explained.
Moreover, I found the RTS gameplay really quite dull and repetitive, such that I didn’t feel compelled to continue.
Road Redemption
Incredibly dumb – horrible dialogue, clumsy gameplay (trying to aim guns while riding was a nightmare) and buggy (the one round which I won was as a result of a bug which caused me to be invincible for most of it), but it did have some entertainment value.
Having spent 125 hours in Recettear, it's fair to say I am very much open to the burgeoning shopkeeper-by-day/dungeon-crawler-by-night genre. Unfortunately, this fell flat. Even after a relatively short period it became a dull grind.
Much of that is due to a distinct lack of charm; it looks nice in screenshots, but lacks any real character or presence in game. The absence of any decent writing is another problem; what there was of the story didn't interest me in the slightest. In contrast to a game like Recettear, filled with charm and heart, this was utterly bland. Add in the clumsy storage system, shallow shopkeeping, sluggish combat and irritatingly repetitive music, and seven hours was more than enough for me.
Was rather surprised to dislike this. I found myself getting lost far too easily, which given that it was a very linear game meant a lot of frustration. The visual presentation was grating and confusing.
Moderately interesting hacking game, but too shallow, linear and not particularly well written.
Took a while for this to click, but once it did it was decent enough. I could have spent many hours playing this in the ‘90s, but it didn’t have enough of interest for me to do so now.
12 Labours of Hercules V: Kids of Hellas
Cute enough, I suppose, but quickly became repetitive.
A music-based shooter with poorly explained shooter mechanics and music which was very much not to my taste. One track really stood out as effectively blending the music and game mechanics, but that should have been the standard rather than the exception.
Purrfect Date
This game is presented as a cutesy, tongue-in-cheek game and for the most part it pulls that off pretty well. If that was the sum of it, I'd be reasonably satisfied. Instead, there is a dark, unpleasant story underneath, with numerous descriptions of animal abuse.
It's utterly jarring - a game which is presented as being for cat lovers (not that kind of lover), yet featuring descriptions of them being victims of torture, experimentation and killing.
The closest thing to a warning on the store page is a reference to "black humour", which doesn't cover it in my view. There is no humour in these scenes, so it’s not “black humour”. I don’t know what it is, other than a simply bizarre choice. Even putting aside the lack of warning, it's an unpleasant and jarring experience. I'm at a loss as to what on earth the devs were thinking.
The writing is otherwise reasonably good. The structure of the game, however, is poor. It requires multiple playthroughs to get a proper ending, and there is no way to quickly skip the text. Prepare for RSI, clicking through page after page of dialogue, if you ever want to get to the ending.
Suffice to say, going through this once is quite enough for me.
Space Hulk Ascension
I normally love turn-based combat, especially with RPG progression, but this was just dull and frustrating. Not having a good year with Warhammer games.
Super Daryl Deluxe
All very QUIRKY, and constantly at pains to remind you of how QUIRKY it is, without ever being particularly amusing. The art style is at least eyecatching, and some of the music is decent, but the writing didn’t grab me at all. The combat was a grindy battle of attrition – the only thing worse than “kill x monster” quests are “collect x items which randomly drop from only a small percentage of monsters after you kill them” quests. Add in the ever-frustrating boss fights where you had to win through repeating an unintuitive set of actions several times, and I didn’t feel like going much further.
Think of the Children
Nice idea, and it’s good to play a locally-made game, but it’s dreadfully designed for a single player. Although it can have up to three co-op partners, it doesn’t adjust the difficulty in the slightest to cater for a solo player rendering it near-impossible.
Legend of Grimrock 2
Obtuse puzzles, clumsy combat and bland design made this quickly unappealing.
I mainly just played for the story mode, which was fine. Didn't notice much of a difference from 18.
Out of the Park Baseball 20
No discernible improvement upon its predecessor.
Oriental Empires
Some nice ideas, but thoroughly dull. In six hours I was attacked three times by bandits and spent the rest of the time painstakingly building farms.
Iratus: Lord of the Dead
An enjoyable little strategy game. I will probably go back to it since it's in early access and is constantly being rebalanced.
Into the Breach
Moderately interesting strategy, but not enough to keep me coming back.
There Came An Echo
Iridium's previous game, Before the Echo (aka Sequence) was a flawed but enjoyable hidden gem.
There Came an Echo has a similar level of charm, but two fundamental problems.
The first is that it was simply unplayable on my PC. A black screen after loading; no way past it. Apparently it was due to an incompatibility with my microphone which is rather problematic when I don't HAVE a microphone.
The second is that (having used my partner's computer to run it) ultimately it's a very raw proof of concept. Like its predecessor it has charm in the voice acting and writing, but unlike its predecessor it is just not a lot of fun to play. Put aside the gimmick of giving voice commands and you're left with a short, clumsy, shallow and frustrating experience.
World of Mixed Martial Arts 5
As usual for the series (indeed, the dev in general), a stack of good ideas marred by fundamental flaws. Good as a hypnotic experience between other games.
Star Trek Timelines
I tried this briefly a few years ago and didn't get into it, but I certainly did this year. It's all pretty shallow, but as a fan-friendly timewaster it's decent enough.
Football Manager Touch 2019
Endlessly infuriating, and a bit buggy, but always manages to draw me back in.
submitted by Donners22 to 12in12 [link] [comments]

Changes that could be made to Climbey to get on the Oculus Store

I heard about Climbey being the most popular SideQuest game, and saw a bunch of people shocked about how Oculus could possibly refuse it. Apparently, the only feedback was that it's "not polished enough." Finally gave the game a shot last night, and I noticed more than a few problems, which strike me as red flags for a game that's been in early access for over 3 years:
When the game starts, the Climbey Demo logo overlaps with the game, and the "depth-fighting" is pretty off-putting; there's no smooth transition from loading to playing.
The buttons on the options menu don't work. Part of the problem is that interacting with the menu involves using big hands with thick fingers to press small buttons; it feels like there's actual collision with all 5 fingers on each hand, so trying to use one finger while holding that hand horizontally to press one of the higher buttons on, for example, the Comfort menu, will result in pressing the "Start!" button.
Another issue is that even when you hear the "button clicked" noise, the button press doesn't seem to actually register. You keep trying to hit the button, and sometimes the light comes on, if it's on, it probably stays on, if you were just trying out the option to see what it was like before turning it off. I'm not sure why it uses that system over something simple and intuitive like this.
Still on the menu, the most obvious problem with interacting with it is that when you boot up an Oculus Quest for the first time, you play the Oculus First Steps app, which introduces you to the CapTouch sensors on the controllers. You get a really nice hand presence feeling because the headset knows when you're resting your fingers on each button, and has a matching animation for all of that. Climbey gives you hands, but doesn't use any of that.
Continuing with controller issues, Climbey is effectively a 1-button game. The current "VR meta" is that on Vive wands, because the grip button is a crappy, tough click that you don't wanna rely on too much, the "grab" input is generally gonna be with the trigger, or a toggle with the grip button, depending on the game. If you pick up something with a trigger, then it will pull the trigger (i.e. on a gun). On Oculus Touch and Index controllers, however, because you have a nice grip input in the form of grip sensors or an analog grip trigger, you're expected to use an intuitive 3-finger squeeze to pick things up, and continue holding that squeeze to continue holding the item. To let go, simply ease up on the squeeze. Climbey instead puts arm swinger locomotion on the grip trigger and the grip action on the front trigger: as a binary input! It feels awful. If I squeeze the trigger halfway, I should see a half-grip. Just pick an activation point; I hear 20% works well enough as a threshold.
The haptics are no good. I eventually realized that you can't climb on dark surfaces, even though the tutorial robot says you can climb on "any surface." But the haptics should tell you when your hand is overlapping with a climbable surface, maybe combined with an animation change.
The framerate is wonky. There's a jump right before the end of the tutorial level, and the first time I tried it, the game decided to drop something like half a second of frames while I was in midair, causing me to plummet all the way to the bottom, completely resetting my progress. There wasn't a second time.
Movement is also wonky. I usually like arm swinging locomotion, but it's so stilted in this game. It doesn't feel snappy like H3VR, and I don't feel like I'm in control, even when I set it to controller direction. Also, enabling snap turn seems to rotate the level rather than the player's VR origin, so things like flags will react to the turn action, which makes no sense.
The tutorial robot mentions the Steam workshop. Not sure why that line wasn't edited out of its dialog. As a user, how am I supposed to react to that, knowing that the Steam workshop is inaccessible on Oculus Quest? Does that mean I'm only getting the 20 levels mentioned? Am I missing out on tons of content because I'm getting this on Quest and not Steam? Not to mention, that tutorial robot looks like it was ripped straight out of Portal.
That's all I have for now. There are other issues, like the Forfeit button porting you seemingly to the next level from the tutorial level, but this post is too long as it is. If I worked at Oculus, I'd refuse the game for the reasons laid out above. I saw the dev respond to someone else bringing up some of these issues with a sentiment along the lines of "yeah, well, that's how I like it," which is their prerogative, but it might be useful to adopt a more "user first" mentality to this sort of thing, especially when it comes time to try to get into a walled garden like the Oculus store.
submitted by vgambit to OculusQuest [link] [comments]

If programming is my dream career, then why do I feel so stupid?

Hi programmers. I’m sure pretty much everyone here would rather scroll on to another more interesting post since guessing from the title, it’s another sob story about how I don’t feel good enough… and you’re right, I suppose. I wanted to seek advice and feedback on a couple issues so I’ll try and keep this post as concise as possible so you’re not clawing out your eyes by the end of it.
When I was about eight or nine years old, I’ve gained a consistent interest in computers. I was never the sporty type, and even now you won’t catch me running a marathon, but I always felt comfortable with technology. This developed during my school years where I took up a programming club and home hobby developing websites. I even wrote a CV at twelve. My younger self was aspirational and ahead of the game. I was eager to learn about HTML, CSS and Javascript. (I was a bit of a show-off too at the time, I was called to the front of the class multiple times because I was the star student, but that’s beside my point) It felt great and since then I basically tunnel visioned this career path. This is what I thought programming was all about, creating and structuring designs and concepts; after all, my only experience with programming was web development.
Fast forward to college (UK, age 16) where I moved onto a Computer Science course. This is where I was theoretically hit with a ton of bricks. It was september two years ago in a class where I knew nobody… and what’s this? Variables? Stored values? Arithmetic? Nested if loops? For loops? Binary calculations and database manipulation? SQL? All of this information was dumped on my head and when we were given our first task in C#, to create a cash register system, I lost all confidence in myself to the point where I cried myself to sleep practically every night because everyone around me picked up the task so easily. It felt like I had been wrapped in a blanket of false security then boom, I’m exposed to the true nature of computing. Turns out everyone in that class had done Computer Science at school, and my private education sheltered arse didn’t. It was just “IT”, and featured excel spreadsheets, macros and web design at most. It was so bad that my teacher even took “pseudocode” for granted, and I went about two months until I finally figured out what it meant. The first few months of college were some of the most pressuring, difficult months I’d ever experienced. I was filled with regret and uncertainty, weighing my options thinking computing is not for me. I even considered picking up English Literature instead because I had a decent amount of creative writing talent.
I’m sure you don’t want to hear anymore about that tragedy. Long story short I received my A-Level results a few days ago and… I got a D. Alongside Computer Science, I also took IT Programming, which I received a Distinction*, and Maths to which I received a B. Astonishingly, I received my University Computing course offer which required ABD*. I’m overjoyed that I get to start the next step in my life in twenty nine days… except now I’m doubting my ability to start a four year computing course at university.
I enjoy programming a lot. It was my hobby for practically a decade of my life. The only problem is… I’ve never touched a raspberry pi like my friends have… and I’ve never rebooted a different OS like my friends have… and I’ve never built my own PC like my friends have. You get the point. Some of the things talked about on this sub is like another language, and the whole field of technology suddenly seems so overwhelming that, despite it being a huge aspiration to be working a back-end programming job where I can work a development project with a group of people, now I feel I’d be the most useless in that group of people. I don’t know what to do.
I haven’t done any programming all summer because I don’t know where to start. I’ve tried multiple websites in the past, such as CodeCademy, except now most of it is locked behind a paywall. I’ve bought books such as a raspberry pi tutorial, but I haven’t bought one yet because it’s quite an investment for something I might not be able to figure out. I haven’t booted Ubuntu in fear I might wreck my laptop in the BIOS somehow. I’m too afraid to build a PC in fear something will go wrong or I break a component with static or something. I’m so nervous about starting a project in Python and coming across a bug I don’t know how to fix, and ultimately giving up. I’m unsure where to find potential resources to improve my programming, and just to top the icing on the cake, now I’m anxious the last nine years of my life have all been for nothing.
I wish I could be like some of my friends and be a tech wizard; I just heard he bought all components to build a new rig, and that he passed his exams with flying colours to go on to do cybersecurity. The other day, he was talking about how he couldn’t get hid DDOS or MRAM or AKBFL23564FDSLK to work and it’s all gibberish. I feel so inferior.
I’m sorry this was so lengthy. It’s 2am here and I’m rambling. I’m not even sure if anyone here can help or even if they’d want to give advice, but consulting reddit was the best idea I had come up with.
Thanks for reading.
submitted by theunlikelycow to cscareerquestions [link] [comments]

Space Engineers Feb 2019 public test UNOFFICIAL survey results (data dump)

Results are from 71 valid responses (86 responses total but 15 hadn't actually played the test) Thanks to all that submitted responses!

Graphical results


New block comments

Progression tree comments

Cargo ship / random encounter comments

New spawning system comments

Temperature mechanic comments

New chat / inventory size comments

Overall test comments

This is a pretty amazing update. Nice job, Keen! I look forward to seeing the full release. Here are a few things I really like, in no particular order:
With that said, there's still room for improvement:
I also have a few things I'd like to see in future updates:
And to everyone at Keen Software House, seriously, great update. I love Space Engineers, and I love to see it improve. Keep up the great work!
submitted by lilbigmouth to spaceengineers [link] [comments]

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